Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Apple Inc Case Study Essays

Apple Inc Case Study Essays Apple Inc Case Study Paper Apple Inc Case Study Paper Operational Balanced Scorecard: Apple, Inc. Expanding client desires and a quickly changing business sector are ceaselessly squeezing Apple to keep up a reasonable scorecard. From the data looked into, it is apparent both money related and non-monetary proportions of Apple activities establish the administration of their key choices and assessments of the expense of value measures. Utilizing the fair scorecard way to deal with characterize the money related situating of Apple makes a reasonable picture concerning what they can and should quantify to adjust the financials appropriately. It is an administration framework that empowers them to light up their corporate system, strategic, vision-and put them energetically, while giving current criticism to improving execution and results. The Learning and Growth Perspective In today’s quick paced universe of quick innovative change, the degree of information and preparing held by Apple’s workers is basic to their capacity to stay a key rival in a profoundly serious market. Hurray! Fund Investor Relations delineates a few characteristics of the non-budgetary proportions of Apple’s adjusted scorecard in regard to the Learning and Growth point of view. It is important for workers to be in a ceaseless learning mode, and it is obvious through Apple’s ongoing interests in preparing their quickly developing number of representatives. Starting at 2010, Apple Inc. utilized 49,400 representatives on a full time premise. That number has risen 34. 2% from 2009, an away from of organization endeavors to cultivate imposing development through advancements, improvement, and market capacity. Representative fulfillment is likewise moderately high at Apple. Their â€Å"Think Different† theory is apparent through all degrees of tasks, from item advancement and advertising, to the corporate culture among representatives. As per PC Mag, â€Å"Steve Jobs has died, however Apple workers will recall him affectionately. At the point when Jobs left Apple in August, he had one of the most noteworthy endorsement appraisals for a CEO by his representatives, as archived by Glassdoor. com. Worker strengthening at Apple makes an open door for Apple representatives to communicate their imagination through creative structure and encourage consistent enhancements for a business procedure, client, and budgetary estimates point of view. Apple’s achievement is intensely dependent on the knowledge and capacities of their workers. It is basic Apple keep on advancing worker strengthening, gloat low representative turnover, and produce high representative fulfillment, as the Learning and Growth point of view sets up the establishment of a reasonable scorecard. Ceaselessly improving execution in the Learning and Growth point of view will empower Apple to improve its Internal Processes, and in this manner increment consumer loyalty, and create better money related execution. The Business Process Perspective Internal business forms are imperious in Apple’s capacity to assess their business and comprehend whether they are meeting and surpassing their client desires. In July, 2011 Steve Jobs said â€Å"We’re excited to convey our best quarter ever, with income up 82 percent and benefits up 125 percent†. Impressive development and record benefits are an unmistakable sign that interior procedures at Apple are working successfully. Apple’s capacity to comply with client necessities at an inside level are delineated through their prosperity and twofold digit income development. The Customer Perspective Apple works in various market fragments with their numerous individualized computing items, versatile correspondence and media gadgets, and convenient advanced music players. The clients are at the core of Microsoft’s activities. From looking into Apple’s 2011 second from last quarter results, it is obvious from expanded incomes in three out of four of their market sections are detailing development in incomes. Despite the fact that income development isn't the sole pointer of consumer loyalty, it is clear their acceptable monetary presentation is legitimately identified with their choice to target explicit client fragments, while separating their client needs and needs all through each portion, in this manner making future worth. As indicated by NY Times, â€Å"In the most recent decade, Apple has reclassified the music business through the iPod, the cellphone business through the iPhone and the amusement and media world through the iPad. Over and over, Mr. Occupations bet that he realized what the client would need, and over and over he was correct. † Exponential development in every one of these market portions shows a significant level of consumer loyalty. Steady improvement of plan characteristics have prompted expanded income development. To Steve Jobs, â€Å"Design isn't exactly what it resembles and feels like. Configuration is the manner by which it works. † Financial Perspective The monetary point of view shows the standard requirement for money related information to be controlled through measurements in a manner that represents the wellness of Apple’s center organizations. This data is basic for Apple to distribute to their investors and expected financial specialists. As Apple Inc. is a publically exchanged organization, their monetary information is accessible on the web. Financial specialists can search for potential dangers confronting the organization, which could conceivably dissuade possible speculators. Coming up next is a selection from Investor Relations, Earnings and Financials; Third quarter results for 2011 outline Apple’s capacity to make expanding investor esteem. We’re excited to convey our best quarter ever, with income up 82 percent and benefits up 125 percent†¦We are very satisfied with our presentation which drove quarterly income from activities of $11. 1 billion, an expansion of 131 percent year-over-year,† said Peter Oppenheimer, Apple’s CFO. Looking forward to the fourth monetary quarter of 2011, we expect income of about $25 billion and we expect weakened profit per portion of about $5. 50. † Increases in working salary from efficiency increase, working pay from development and income development permit Apple Inc. o deal with their expenses and unused limit and manufacture solid client connections, bringing about expanded investor esteem. Expenses of Controlling Quality versus Expenses of not Controlling Quality According to the content from class, â€Å"The American Society for Quality characterizes quality as the complete highlights and attributes of an item or administration made or performed by details to fulfill clients at the hour of procurement and during use. † There is no uncertainty that Apple is an effective organization. From auditing the Apples’ budget summaries, it is clear Apple has cornered the market on â€Å"cool†. Apple has valiantly promoted themselves as an organization that makes items that â€Å"just work. † However, this achievement includes some major disadvantages. Expenses of Controlling Quality Prevention Cost: Apple, Inc. As per AppleMatters. com, â€Å"In terms of equipment, Apples achievement is over-burdening its own Quality Control. With makers that need to deliver a record number of Macs, iPods, iPhones, and adornments, it is point of fact that a few analyzers neglect a few tests so as to dispatch out however many Apple items as could reasonably be expected to the world. By speaking to business, instruction and the general purchaser, Apples items arrive at a bigger objective crowd than other PC makers, requiring more units to be delivered and dispatched as quickly as time permits. † Maintaining consistency in quality with respect to Apple providers, plan designing, and testing of new materials is basic to the future accomplishment of Apple. Interests in innovative work and quality control are a case of one of Apple Inc. anticipation Costs. From the material checked on, it is clear that Apple has contributed extensive measures of their time and cash into RD. The determined gauge is that these venture costs will make future income development through the decrease of interior and outside disappointment costs brought about by re-work and deterioration, and client service, while expanding an incentive in their worth chain. Evaluation Cost Apple Inc. is notable for their great items, and quality control is basic to their prosperity. The expenses of value (COQ) Apple brings about to forestall the creation of low quality items is high, as they separate themselves from their rivals. Jobsâ obsesses about contenders and powers his workers to do likewise, to ensure Apple doesn’t develop complacentâ he promotes all items to have driving edge parts. Mr. Jobsâ embraces Disruption, doesn’t dread seeing it in his organization, doesn’t mind it among his kin, and attempts to make it in his business sectors. Furthermore, he ensures Apple continually keeps White Space ventures open and attempting to perceive what works with clients †testing and attempting new things all the timeâ in the commercial center. Similarly as interests in testing and RD are a case of controlling the expense of value (COQ), Apple’s procedure of reviewing the products before deal is a case of a COQ and can be referenced as an examination cost. The nonstop procedure of overseeing Apple’s COQ, for example, the review of completed merchandise will guarantee diminishes in the expenses of not adjusting to quality principles, in regard to outside disappointment costs, including guarantee fix and client care, keeping up their elevated levels of current consumer loyalty and encouraging further development openings. With the astounding accomplishment of Apple Inc. ver the most recent decade and gossipy tidbits about new produ

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Health status Report of Vera for Model -

Question: Talk about theHealth status Report of Vera for Model. Answer: Wellbeing Status Report of Vera Based on Comprehensive Model of Assessment The thorough emotional well-being evaluation is imperative to set up a helpful union with the patient (Coombs et al 2011). It is imperative to detail treatment objectives and plans in the wake of doing a far reaching psychological wellness evaluation of the patient. A far reaching appraisal incorporate assortment of data in regards to clinical history, individual history, social history, family ancestry, the present mental state, subjective evaluation, substance misuse (tobacco, liquor, drugs), physical evaluation, and potential dangers (on the same page). Presently follows the Health status Report of Vera dependent on Comprehensive model of Mental Health Assessment. History The history taking is significant segment of emotional wellness evaluation (Bor et al 2016). The history incorporates mental history, clinical history, individual history (Psychosocial/formative history), family ancestry and social history (in the same place). On account of Vera, we were unable to assemble any data in regards to history. The main data accessible is that Vera has this disease since quite a while. The questioner asked twice that from to what extent he is enduring this way. The main answer was, Long time. While taking the historical backdrop of prescription, it was realized that Vera quit taking drug since scarcely any weeks or hardly any months as he speculated that the medications were harmed by certain intruders. Mental State Examination As a matter of first importance, it is imperative to realize patients perspective at the hour of meeting. It will additionally help in giving guidance to the appraisal. It will tell whether the patient is prepared for an exhaustive evaluation at this moment, or he is basic and should be talked with discretely and should be given some clinical intercession after finding (Akiskal 2016). The patient in this specific Video was very upset. He was feeling cold and was completely clad with coat, top, suppressor, and gloves. He was shaking his legs continually. He was putting goggles. He was looking old and frail. He was concerned and vexed. He was likewise looking to a great extent so as to speculate somebody around. This was because of sound-related mind flights and a reaction to that. He was suspecting that a few gatecrashers are keeping an eye on him thus he was searching for them to a great extent in the room. He was having tremors because of which he was shaking his legs. He was eager, pulled back and awkward. There was a little level of nervousness in the conduct of Veera. It was hard for the questioner to fabricate affinity with the Vera as he was suspecting the questioner at first yet later on he began reacting admirably to the posed inquiries. His discourse was likewise poor and constrained. His face was indicating the feelings of difference. There was additionally incongruity in his musings. He was feeling as though a few interlopers are placing musings in his brain. He was not having any self-destructive contemplations. Neither one of the hes was having considerations of hurting himself, nor was he having contemplations of hurting others. He was having fear. He was dreadful of certain gatecrashers who were keeping an eye on him and were hollering at him. These side effects propose of Schizophrenia. The questioner additionally knew from his case history or caseworker that the patient has a background marked by Schizophrenia. There is no target symptomatic trial of Schizophrenia starting at 2013 (American Psychiatric Association 2013). Conclusion is altogether clinical and depends on side effects of patient and his encounters which he advises to clinician. The conclusion is additionally founded on the conduct of patient as depicted by loved ones of patient (on the same page). The manifestations of Schizophrenia are regularly depicted regarding positive and negative side effects (Kneisl Trigoboff 2009). Positive side effects are those side effects which are absent in solid people however are available in Schizophrenia patients. It incorporates sound-related fantasies, hallucinations, scattered contemplations discourse, irregular social conduct, and different appearances of Psychosis (on the same page). Antagonistic indications are those which are deficiencies in persistent with Schizophrenia when contrasted with ordinary sound individual. These incorporate poor social aptitudes, powerlessness to frame great connections, troubles in alteration, failure to be glad and experience delight, poor discourse, and absence of inspiration throughout everyday life (in the same place). This specific patient is additionally indicating comparative manifestations. Sensorium and Cognition Cognizance in schizophrenia guides us towards pathophysiology, and treatment of the infection (Green Harvey 2014). The investigation of intellectual hindrance in schizophrenia has gotten focal in the investigation of schizophrenia itself, and the course anticipation of its treatment (in the same place). The poor discernment makes the patient practically handicap. Hostile to crazy drugs treat the psychosis however insight needs mental recovery, to be completely utilitarian and take an interest in public activity (on the same page). The patient was arranged as far as time, spot and individual. He had the option to tell the name of the questioner and his calling. He was likewise ready to tell the day and date. He came without anyone else by taking a transport. His memory was fine. He had the option to tell the names of past five leaders of Australia. He was marginally perplexed. He was having unique contemplations of 5-6 individuals in red vehicles keeping an eye on him; individuals on TV placing musings in his brain; hearing voices that reprimand him to take his garments; interlopers have harmed his prescriptions and so forth. Understanding Schizophrenia is usually went with poor knowledge (Vander-Meer et al 2013). Knowledge incorporates clinical understanding and subjective understanding. Clinical understanding incorporate mindfulness of his sickness, and perceiving the requirement for treatment. Intellectual understanding incorporates capacity of patient to separate himself from anomalous encounters and to think about elective clarifications for their convictions (on the same page). The procedure incorporate self-reflection and cognizant assessment (on the same page). The patient didn't view himself as sick. He told questioner that nothing isn't right with him. Veera didn't concede that he has any psychological instability. He likewise quit taking meds and figured he needn't bother with them and a few gatecrashers have harmed those meds. He came here on the grounds that he needed to dispose of gatecrashers who were shouting at him and spying at him and were badgering him. Veera accepted that the questioner will get him out to fix these gatecrashers. The questioner guaranteed him that these interlopers will be passed before supper. Social and Religious Beliefs of Patient It is essential to evaluate understanding with respect to his social, social and strict convictions; which will help while arranging social recuperation of the patient (Paniagua 2013). In this specific case, the patient Veera is a strict individual who goes to Church each Sunday and he has a sense of security there. He doesn't have sound-related pipedreams at that place. He considers the gatecrashers which are keeping an eye on him can't enter the congregation and can't hurt him at that place. It is a positive hint with respect to the patient which can help him in his recuperation. Substance Abuse Assessment Medication and liquor misuse is normally present in patients of Schizophrenia (Gregg, Barrowclough Haddock 2007). Around 50 percent of patients with Schizophrenia enjoy medicate liquor misuse (on the same page). The patient was a smoker. At the hour of meeting, the patient was desiring for a smoke and he was having withdrawal indications. He was restless and was shaking his legs. Hazard Assessment The patient was not taking his medications, which was a hazard for his wellbeing and others as well. He was endorsed Olanzipine and was taking it as long as not many months back. At that point he began suspecting that couple of inruders are near, keeping an eye on him, and have harmed his prescriptions. So he quit taking meds. The patient isn't self-destructive at present. Nor is he having contemplations of hurting himself nor others. The patient additionally doesn't look fierce at present. In any case, we cannot guarantee that the patient won't be self-destructive or fierce as the patients determined to have Schizophrenia end it all hastily or turn out to be vicious indiscreetly (Taylor 2010). The patient has quit taking enemies of psychotics and is having mental trips; which is progressively connected with suicides in Schizophrenic patients (in the same place). Study of the Interview Process It is critical to frame a restorative relationship with the patient while meeting. Building up a decent repo with the patient, winning trust of the patient, and making him agreeable while meeting; are fundamental prerequisites of a viable appraisal. The emotional wellness patient ought to be guaranteed that this condition is ok for him and the questioner is here to support him (MacKinnon 2015). It is additionally critical to pose inquiries with respect to his social, social and profound condition (Paniagua 2013). In this specific meeting Vera advised the questioner that he goes to Church each Sunday; which is significant data and will help in his recuperation. The patient likewise told the questioner that he has a sense of security at Church and don't hear voices there. The questioner may have additionally asked what other place do he have a sense of security. He may have gotten some information about his loved ones, his supporters, his abusers and so on. He could have assembled positive and negative expressive gestures about his life and social condition. The questioner didn't take point by point history of the patient as the patient was very vexed, awkward, and eager; and in this manner in basic circumstance, questioner liked to keep the meeting discrete. The questioner may have gotten some information about psychosocial/formative history, which is significant. Here we could assemble data in regards to his youth, any history of misuse or injury, past everyday environments just as present day to day environments, any help, instruction, occupation, leisure activities and so on. The history about his social condition is likewise significant including famil

Saturday, August 15, 2020

The Top Things to Know About Psychology

The Top Things to Know About Psychology Basics Print An Overview of Psychology By Kendra Cherry facebook twitter Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author, educational consultant, and speaker focused on helping students learn about psychology. Learn about our editorial policy Kendra Cherry Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD on August 10, 2017 Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn about our Medical Review Board Steven Gans, MD Updated on May 06, 2019 Gary Waters / Getty Images More in Psychology Basics Psychotherapy Student Resources History and Biographies Theories Phobias Emotions Sleep and Dreaming Psychology is a broad field that encompasses the study of human thought, behavior, development, personality, emotion, motivation, and more. Gaining a richer and deeper understanding of psychology can help people achieve insights into their own actions as well as a better understanding of others. What Is Psychology? Psychology is the study of the mind and behavior. Research in psychology seeks to understand and explain how people think, act, and feel. Psychologists strive to learn more about the many factors that can impact thought and behavior, ranging from biological influences to social pressures. Applications for psychology include mental health treatment, performance enhancement, self-help, ergonomics, and many other areas affecting health and daily life. It is difficult to capture everything that psychology encompasses in just a brief definition, but topics such as development, personality, thoughts, feelings, emotions, motivations, and social behaviors represent just a portion of what psychology seeks to understand, predict, and explain. Theres a lot of confusion out there about psychology. Unfortunately, such misconceptions about psychology abound in part thanks to stereotyped portrayals of psychologists in popular media as well as the diverse career paths of those holding psychology degrees. According to some popular television programs and movies, psychologists are super-sleuths that can use their understanding of the human mind to solve crimes and predict a criminals next move. Other traditional depictions present the psychologist as gray and wise, seated in a stately office lined with books, and listening to clients ramble on about their difficult childhoods. So what is psychology really all about? The fact is that there is a little bit of truth in these stereotypical portrayals, but there is a lot more to psychology than you might initially think. There is tremendous diversity in psychology careers and it is perhaps this enormous range of career paths that contributes to some of the misconceptions about psychology and what psychologists do. Sure, there are psychologists who help solve crimes and there are plenty of professionals who help people deal with mental health issues. However, there are also psychologists who contribute to creating healthier workplaces. There are psychologists that design and implement public health programs. Other psychologists investigate topics such as airplane safety, computer design, and military life. No matter where psychologists work, their primary goals are to help describe, explain, predict, and influence human behavior. How Psychology Came to Be What It Is Today Early psychology evolved out of both philosophy and biology. Discussions of these two subjects date as far back as the early Greek thinkers, including Aristotle and Socrates. The word psychology itself is derived from the Greek word psyche, literally meaning life or breath. Derived meanings of the word include soul or self. The emergence of psychology as a separate and independent field of study truly came about when Wilhelm Wundt established the first experimental psychology lab in Leipzig, Germany in 1879. Wundts work was focused on describing the structures that compose the mind. This perspective relied heavily on the analysis of sensations and feelings through the use of introspection, an extremely subjective process. Wundt believed that properly trained individuals would be able to identify accurately the mental processes that accompanied feelings, sensations, and thoughts. Throughout psychologys history, various schools of thought have formed to explain the human mind and behavior. In some cases, certain schools of thought rose to dominate the field of psychology for a period of time. While these schools of thought are sometimes perceived as competing forces, each perspective has contributed to our understanding of psychology. The following are some of the major schools of thought in psychology. Wundt and Titcheners structuralism was the earliest school of thought, but others soon began to emerge.The early psychologist and philosopher William James became associated with a school of thought known as functionalism, which focused its attention on the purpose of human consciousness and behavior.Soon, these initial schools of thought gave way to several dominant and influential approaches to psychology. Sigmund Freuds psychoanalysis centered on how the unconscious mind impacted human behavior.The behavioral school of thought turned away from looking at internal influences on behavior and sought to make psychology the study of observable behaviors.Later, the humanistic approach centered on the importance of personal growth and self-actualization.By the 1960s and 1970s, the cognitive revolution spurred the investigation of internal mental processes such as thinking, decision-making, language development, and memory. Top 4 Things to Know About Psychology Here are some important things to know about psychology. Psychology Is Both an Applied and Theoretical Discipline Psychology is both an applied and academic field that studies the human mind and behavior. Research in psychology seeks to understand and explain how we think, act, and feel. Research psychologists contribute to our understanding of why people behave as they do as well as different factors that can impact the human mind and behavior. As most people already realize, a large part of psychology is devoted to the diagnosis and treatment of mental health issues, but thats just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to applications for psychology. In addition to mental health, psychology can be applied to a variety of issues that impact health and daily life including well-being, ergonomics, motivation, productivity, and much more. There Are Many Different Specialty Areas in Psychology Psychology is a broad and diverse field. Some different subfields and specialty areas have emerged. The following are some of the major areas of research and application within psychology: Abnormal psychology is the study of abnormal behavior and psychopathology. This specialty area is focused on research and treatment of a variety of mental disorders and is linked to psychotherapy and clinical psychology.Biological psychology, also known as biopsychology, studies how biological processes influence the mind and behavior. This area is closely linked to neuroscience and utilizes tools such as MRI and PET scans to look at brain injury or brain abnormalities.Clinical psychology is focused on the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of mental disorders. It is also considered the single largest area of employment within psychology.Cognitive psychology is the study of human thought processes and cognitions. Cognitive psychologists study topics such as attention, memory, perception, decision-making, problem-solving, and language acquisition.Comparative psychology is the branch of psychology concerned with the study of animal behavior. This type of research can lead to a deeper and broader understanding of human psychology.Developmental psychology is an area that looks at human growth and development over the lifespan. Theories often focus on the development of cognitive abilities, morality, social functioning, identity, and other life areas.Forensic psychology is an applied field focused on using psychological research and principles in the legal and criminal justice system.Industrial-organizational psychology is a field that uses psychological research to enhance work performance and select employees.Personality psychology focuses on understanding how personality develops as well as the patterns of thoughts, behaviors, and characteristics that make each individual unique.Social psychology focuses on understanding group behavior as well as how social influences shape individual behavior. Topics studied by social psychologists include attitudes, prejudice, conformity, and aggression. Psychologists Utilize Scientific Methods Psychologists use objective scientific methods to understand, explain, and predict human behavior. Psychological studies are highly structured, beginning with a hypothesis that is then empirically tested. As psychology moved away from its philosophical roots, psychologists began to employ more and more scientific methods to study human behavior. Contemporary researchers use a variety of scientific techniques including experiments, correlational studies, and longitudinal research. There Are Many Different Applications for Psychology The most obvious application for psychology is in the field of mental health where psychologists use principles, research, and clinical findings to help clients manage and overcome symptoms of mental distress and psychological illness. There are also many other ways that psychology used to help people live better, healthier lives. Psychological research can have an impact on public policy, can be used to design public health initiatives, and can guide approaches to education and child development programs. A Word From Verywell As you can see, while psychology may be a relatively young science it also has a tremendous amount of both depth and breadth. The assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of mental illness are central interests of psychology, but psychology encompasses much more than mental health. Today, psychologists seek to understand many different aspects of the human mind and behavior, adding new knowledge to our understanding of how people think as well as developing practical applications that have an important impact on everyday human lives.

Sunday, May 24, 2020

Creative Management Essay examples - 1219 Words

Creative Management gives creative ideas of how a manger should present himself and how to approach different situations. Creative Management written by Shiegru Kobanashi, focuses mainly on the importance of teamwork, and on group management. How can we transform our present methods of production, under which we become slaves to machines, and regulations for the temporary increase in productivity, into one in which we are the masters of our work? How can we establish a system, which will make people work voluntarily and feel good about doing it. The book starts with waking up make sure you have proper hygiene. Wear simple clothes. Not close that stand out. A fussy dresser doesn’t impress people, but it gives a false impression of the†¦show more content†¦A manager should aim at responsible conduct that will cause others no trouble. Managers have to deal with all kinds of problems all day. They deal with all the problems of a business. If managers keep the problems of the business to themselves the problems may never be solved. When managers are having problems with their personnel they should stop and think whether it is something in their own conduct or attitude, which is causing the problem. It is hard not to bring a persons personal life into the business world but sometimes it happens. If out side of the job you are having problems and are very down because of it chances are you a portraying a negative vibe through out the work place. If this is the case you have to get a grip and put you personal life on hold and help the business by lightening up the atmosphere. If you are not the problem and other employees are having problems a manager should use empathy to help resolve the problem. If the problem takes on a larger scale a meeting should be held to discuss the problem or problems and come up with a well thought out resolution. Industrial organizations are not fully independent bodies, they do not exist solely for the employees of whom they consist. The managers are selected by people other than the workers, and have to report directly to managers at higher levels. However, that authority denies a worker, freedom to express their personality, and creates aShow MoreRelatedCreative Managment Essays : Creative Management1216 Words   |  5 PagesCreative Managment Essay, Research Paper Creative Management gives creative ideas of how a manger should present himself and how to approach different situations. Creative Management written by Shiegru Kobanashi, focuses mainly on the importance of teamwork, and on group management. How can we transform our present methods of production, under which we become slaves to machines, and regulations for the temporary increase in productivity, into one in which we are the masters of our work? How can weRead MoreCreative and Innovative Management7484 Words   |  30 Pages |TASK |   | |Understand the importance of |Evaluate current creative and innovative | | |creative and innovative management |management processes in an organization | | |in organizations | Read MoreCreative and Innovative Management3308 Words   |  14 PagesAssignment Report Creative Innovative Management By: Noor Ahmad Darwish Submitted to: Resources Development International Date: (14-04-2013) pg. 1 Table of Contents: Introduction†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. (Page 3) 1.1 Evaluates current creative and innovative management processes †¦..(Page 3) 1.2 Explains how managers in an organization can lead others to positively embrace innovation and change†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 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According to (, (No date)) Management is a distinct process which involves a series interconnected activities and is followed by achieving the best possible performance. If particular actions for example – planning, leading, and motivating the resources of a business are used sufficiently by an intelligent group then the targets aimed for will be achieved (Rawlins, 1995). Oxford English dictionaryRead MoreCreative and Innovative Management5388 Words   |  22 Pageseffective action to realize leadership potential. â€Å"Leadership is an interactive conversation that pulls people towards becoming comfortable with language of personal responsibility and commitment† Leadership is not meant for the people of top management, but everyone can discover power within himself and can lead â€Å"leaders are not born they are made†. Leadership is more about dealing with people verses tasks. Great Leaders are able to positively influence people to perform the tasks to them.†LeadershipRead MoreAcc 556 Week 11028 Words   |  5 PagesInternal Accountant’s Report to Management | |Accountant | Memo To: Management From: Internal Accountant Date: 10/8/2011 Re: Government Bid Occupational fraud is defined as the use of a person’s job for individual enrichment through the purposeful mishandling or misapplication of his or her employer’s capital or assets (WellsRead MoreI Don t Consider Myself A Good Writer1273 Words   |  6 Pages I recognize that my academic writing is fine for the most part, but I cannot call myself a writer at all until I can improve my creative writing-- particularly my poetry. I absolutely refuse, and paradoxically, I doubt that I will ever be truly satisfied with my creative writing skills-- particularly in my poetry. Going into this course, I had never taken a creative writing course and all of my english or language courses in high school focused if not on literature than on academic writing. WhichRead MoreMission Statement For Wrnite Brnin World810 Words   |  4 PagesAbout Us: WRiTE BRAiN WORLD is a children’s educational company offering the first-ever, standards-aligned curricula in the creative and academic art of children’s book authoring. Our programs [and products] are designed for students ranging from pre-k to high school to adult education and are implemented in almost all 50 states. While meeting the needs of every type of learner exactly where they are in their development, our curricula are especially beneficial for English Learners who comprise ourRead MoreDescribe the Strategic Management Failure in Enron That Led It Into Its Demise?1155 Words   |  5 Pagesstrategic management failure in Enron that led it into its demise? Enron was formed in 1986 from the merger of natural gas pipeline companies Houston Natural Gas and Internorth. At the time of filing for Chapter 11 Bankruptcy protection in December 2001, Enron had a portfolio of diversified activities ranging from the transportation of natural gas, the generation transmission and distribution of electricity; marketing of natural gas, electricity and other commodities and related risk management and

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Frailty Syndrome As Elderly Individuals Essay - 1471 Words

Life expectancy has increased dramatically in the last century due primarily to the control of infectious diseases, especially in the younger cohorts and the improvement of medical care and nutrition. This has, however, resulted in a large percentage of the older population suffering chronic diseases. The population within Canada is aging and we are living longer than we have in the past. According to Statistics Canada (2012), from 1920-1922, a man’s average lifespan was 59 years of age and a woman’s average lifespan was 61 years of age; in 2012, this has now increased to 79 for men and 83 for women. This increasing lifespan has created a new frontier in the health and wellbeing of the elderly as it has resulted in a consequent increase in complex health care needs of elderly people with Frailty Syndrome. Fried et al. (2005) identify Frailty Syndrome as elderly individuals â€Å"meeting three out of five phenotypic criteria indicating compromised energetics: low grip strength, low energy, slowed walking speed, low physical activity, and/or Health care systems across Canada are becoming strained by this aging cohort and will continue to become even more so in the coming years. It is estimated that the number of frail elderly in Canada will â€Å"double to well over 2 million within the next 20 years† (Young, 2015, pg. 1) and it is imperative that we look at how we are going to be able to support this through changes in our healthcare system. One means of doing this is to create moreShow MoreRelatedFrailty: A Condition of the Elderly1460 Words   |  6 PagesFrailty Introduction ‘Frailty thy name is woman emotionally refers to his mother Hamlet (Act 1, Scene 2). While the term â€Å"frailty† has been around for a while, the use of it in a medical literature has only been evolving in the past 30 years. However, condition with similar meaning, was described back in 1914 in a publication â€Å"The Diseases of Old Age and their Treatment† (Nascher, 1914). In this publication Nascher describes a condition of his elderly patients as â€Å"senile disability† or â€Å"senileRead MoreThe Treatment Of Muscle Mass Essay1569 Words   |  7 Pagesthe loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength that occurs with aging. ( Cruz-Jentoft et al., 2010). Sarcopenia is considered one of the geriatric syndromes because its prevalence in older populations (Chien, et al 2008). Sarcopenia leads to functional disabilities, decrease mobility, falls, and fractures, which lead to the loss of independence, frailty, and also increased risk of mortality (Freiberger et al., 2011). There are no effective treatments for sarcopenia yet. 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( Cruz-Jentoft et al., 2010). Sarcopenia is considered one of the geriatric syndromes because its prevalence in older populations (Chien, et al 2008). Sarcopenia leads to functional disabilities, decrease mobility, falls, and fractures, which lead to the loss of independence, frailty, and also increased risk of mortality (Freiberger et al., 2011). There are no effective treatments for sarcopenia yet. Pharmacological trials areRead MoreIncreasing Population Of Older People Essay1600 Words   |  7 Pagesfunctional ability (Gopinath B, Russell J, Flood VM, Burlutsky G, Mitchell P, 2014). Elderly with poor overall diet quality are likely to have suboptimal levels of nutrition biomarkers; this could negatively affect quality of life and functional independence (Gopinath B, Russell J, Flood VM, Burlutsky G, Mitchell P, 2014). 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Identification of Active Compounds Free Essays

Some plants have more than one chemical as an active principle responsible for their biological properties. Phytochemical tests was done to find the presence of the active chemical constituents such as alkaloid, glycosides, flavonoids, reducing sugars, triterpenes, phenolic acid and tannis. Detailed Phytochemical screening was carried out as per standard methods. We will write a custom essay sample on Identification of Active Compounds or any similar topic only for you Order Now (Kokate, 2000; Habone, 1999; Tiwari et al., 2011). Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Analysis: To find the bioactive compound in the extracts and their quantification, it was further analyzed by GC/Ms. The various crude extracts of the plants were analyzed by using a Shimadzu, 2010 equipped with a splitless mode injector system,a flame photometric detector and a TRB 5 MS capillary column with 30m length,0.25 mm internal diameter and 0.25 um stationary film thickness prepared from Phenomenex was used for determination of biopesticide. The oven temperature was hold at 50? for 1 min then programmed at 25 ?/min to 125? ,from 125? to 300? at the rate of 10oC/min and finally holds for 15 min. The minimum detection limit of GC-MS for the determination of pesticide was 0.1ppb.The total time for one GC run was 30 min.Other operating conditions were as follows:ultra pure helium,passed through a molecular sieve trap and trap oxygen was used as the carrier gas at constant linear velocity of 40.7 cm/sec. The injection port temperature was 250?and used in splitless mode at ratio of 10:00.The detector temperature was hold at 280?.A hydrogen generator instrument was applied to supply hydrogen gas for flame photometric detector (FPD)at a flow of 1.22ml/min . The percentage composition of the crude extract constituents was expressed as a percentage by peak area. Total GC running time was. Interpretation on mass spectrum GC-MS was conducted using the database of national institute of standard and technology (NIST). The mass spectrum of the unknown component was compared with the spectrum of the known components stored in the NIST Library. Results:There are several factors that can interfere qualitatively and quantitatively in the results, in the metabolites presence, one of them can be seasonal factor, which may be considered as the period of seed collection. The present study made an effort to screen for its photochemicals the photochemical screening of methanolic extract of piper nigrum showed maximum number of metabolites like alkaloid, flavanoids, carbohydrates, proteins, phenols, phytosterols, tannins in table 1. Table No1: Photochemical screening of Piper NigrumS. No Phytochemicals Test Performed Result1. Alkaloids Hager’s testMayer’s Reagent Positive2. Carbohydrates Molish test Positive3. Saponins Froth test Negative4. Glycosides Borntager,s test Negative5. ProtienAmino acids Biuret’s Test Positive6. Phytosterol Libermann –Burchard’test Negative7. Phenolic compounds Ferric chloride test compounds Positive8. Flavonoids Alkaline Reagent testLead Acetate test Positive9. Terpenoids Salkowski’s test Positive10. Tannins Neutral FeCl3 PositiveFg: GC-MS Chromatogram of Piper Nigrum L. Table 2: Quantitaive analysis of P.Nigrum: Name Conc(%) Ret.Time m/z Area1. 3-Carene 7.846 3.574 93.00 9772. Delta-3-carene 18.671 3.655 93.00 23253. Alpha –Limonene 1.233 3.828 93.00 1554. Cinene 15.492 3.903 93.00 23125. Beta-Linalool 1.328 5.049 71.00 1656. Delta-Elemene 11.678 10.100 121.00 14547. Ylangene 0.418 10.420 121.00 528. Copaene 6.270 11.048 105.00 7819. Levo-beta-Elemene 1.222 11.390 93.00 15210. Caryophyllene 32.261 12.117 69.00 401911. Alpha Caryophyllene 7.053 12.919 93.00 87812. Alpha-Curcumene 0.557 13.473 73.00 8313. Eudesma-4(14),11-diene 0.749 13.684 93.00 9314. Alpha-Selinene 0.561 13.879 189.00 6915. Beta-Bisabolene 0.426 14.104 69.00 5316. Delta-Cadinene 2.335 14.441 161.00 29017. Caryophylleneoxide 1.110 15.953 43.00 13818. Myristyl chloride 0.614 16.049 43.00 7619. Ledol 0.097 16.558 43.00 1220. (-)-Spathulenol 3.700 17044 43.00 46021. Ar-tumerone 3.657 17.740 83.00 455In the present study ,the chemical profile of black pepper was identified using GC-MS.GC-MS investigation revealed that 21 compounds are identified in Black pepper extract . The major components of black pepper were caryophyllene (32.261),delta.3-carene (18.671) as well as Cinene(15.492) as indicated in Table 2.DiscussionStudies have reported that the spicy tang of pepper is due to the presence of piperamides which are the pungent bioactive alkaloids accumulate in the skin and seeds of fruit.(Nahak and Sahu, 2011) reported the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, phenol, essential oil and protein in Piper nigrum.The result of the study corroborates with findings of (Zahira et al.,2016) which shows alkaloid,flavanoid,carbohydrates,tannins,proteins,phenols,phytosterols,while terpeniods and saponins were absent.(Priya and Sarvana 2016) Revealed the presence of 15 components of blackpepper out of that highest integrated percentage of Aspartic acid is present and moderate amout of Limonene,Betasteosterol,and Asarinin.Previous study on GC-MS analysis were carried by (Morshed et al.,2017 )they reported that the Carophyllene ,Limonene and camphene were major components in oil of blacl pepper which were close to our findings. The differences are probably due to various geographic and ecological conditions.ConclusionThe phytochemical screening of methanolic extract of black pepper decleared the presence of many phytochemical components.The GC-MS analysis showed a number of components.The present study may be useful for further study in future to explore the biosynthetic activity of black pepper. How to cite Identification of Active Compounds, Papers

Monday, May 4, 2020

Pros and Cons of Intrsuion Detection Systems - Free Samples

Question: Discuss about the Pros and Cons of Intrsuion Detection Systems. Answer: Introduction: The case study is a research report/study conducted by the European agency for Network and Information security commonly known as ENISA. This is an organization that provides networking and information system security expertise in European Union member states, private firms and it citizen at large. This report provides a thorough analysis of security threats related to Big Data. The study looks into various big data assets which include abstract assets, virtual assets (for example, data), physical assets human resources and money. These assets are related to information and communication technology. ENISA provides various threats to these big data assets which include; loss of information, eavesdropping, interception and hijacking, nefarious activity, legal-related threats and organization-related threats (Panchenko, 2016). The report also provides more detailed information on some of the threat agents that brings about various big data threats. These agents are; corporations, cyber criminals, cyber terrorists, online social workers, script kiddies, employees and nation states (Hesley, 2014). All these agents posts various security issues to existing information systems as explained in the case study. Finally, the report by ENISA gives some of the recommendations or best practices in which can be undertaken in order to minimize these security threats to information systems. Some of which are; Access control, cryptography, information system security measures design among others. This report is based on various sources which include; desk research, conference papers, articles, technical blogs and open source information related to big data (Claudio Agostino, 2016). The report highlights various security techniques that are related to these information infrastructures. ENISAs Big Data security infrastructure diagram representing this can be shown below. The diagram above represents relationship between various categories of Big Data Assets, security techniques used and different infrastructures through which security measures are implemented to the data contained in these infrastructures. Top Threats The following are some of the top threats that I would consider more significant and which has a greater impact when it comes to the security of Big Data assets and infrastructure (Zadelhoff, 2016). According to this report, nefarious activities involve manipulation of existing information infrastructures by attackers using specific software or tools. These actions might lead to interference with the security of the Big Data infrastructures such as Storage models, software, hardware and computing models (Leech, 2016). Some of the security threats related to nefarious activities include; use of malicious code commonly known as virus to paralyze the operations of Big Data infrastructures. Identity theft which involve use of information system credentials by unauthorized persons, denial of information services, use of rogue certificates and audit tools misuse. The reason as to why nefarious threats are rated high is because in most cases where a malicious code is used, it always target large data sources especially in big company or government organizations (Henry, 2010). For instance, the use of wannacry virus that attack major organization information systems in 2017 (WOOLLASTON, 2017). Eavesdropping, interception and hijacking This is where attackers intercept information being transmitted via the information systems infrastructures such as network. The attackers tap on the transmission media by accessing the victims network and thereafter gaining unauthorized access to the data contained in the information system. This interferes with integrity and confidentiality aspect of the information contained in the information systems (Gill, 2015). This threat is one of the top since most it is done via the internet and once the attacker has established a connection with the victims system, a lot of damages can be caused; such as information theft, modification or even rendering services unavailable (Zetter, 2013). This is information is lost by mistake and it fall into the hands of unintended people. This leakage of information would be as a result of unintended information sharing such as via emails, web applications or inadequate information on the information system in use (Darmian, 2015). This kind of information system threat can damage the victim largely. For instance, if the data contained in the information system belongs to patients in a hospital, then the information is leaked to the public by mistake, the victim in this case the patient will be so much damaged and traumatized as his/her medical information will no longer be confidential as it should be the case. Big Data Security Threat Agents These are people who conduct unauthorized activities using the internet or networking channels by targeting an information system. These criminals conduct these activities for their own personal gain. The motive of cyber criminals would be information theft or modification of information such as Point of sales, banking systems among others for the purpose of financial gains. The victims of cyber criminals can be local, national or international organizations such as banks, insurance companies, and many more (Mbele, 2014). According to a report be Peter, countries such as South Africa, China and Russia were highly affected by cybercrime between 2011 and 2013 (Mbele, 2014). Cyber criminals can be controlled in various ways. One of the ways in Control of Access. This feature of security entails a way of authorization level classification process where each system user has his/her own access credentials to a defined part of the information system. This will prevent unauthorized users from accessing unauthorized information thus reducing cybercrime rate. Another mechanism is the use of anti-virus by organization handling big data. This will ensure that malicious software or codes used by cyber criminals do not penetrate into the information system. Another control of cybercrime is monitoring of the information system infrastructure and scanning all the information contained in the system. This will ensure that every unauthorized behavior is detected and taken care of before any damages are made (c, 2017). ENISA report mentions cyber terrorist as one of the information system security threats. Cyber terrorist are those people who use internet to establish attacks by using viruses, malwares to computer networks belonging to various people or organizations. Some of the targets of these terrorist include; individuals, governments and organizations. This act of terrorism is always propagated by political or religious ideologies. The main aim of cyber terrorist is to cause damage and bring about destructions through the use of internet and information systems of their victims (Curran, 2016). To mitigate cyber terrorism various security measures can be used. These security techniques include; Design of information system security mechanisms from the start. This is a preventive measure that will ensure that the information system is secure from any attacks. Consideration of this approach of integrating security measures into the information system during design will enhance security by ensuring that intended attacks are prevented and therefore damages intended by cyber terrorist are avoided. Another security measure is physical isolation of the information systems. This will ensure that physical attacks such as theft of information system assets or devices are prevented. This approach also will reduce electromagnetic pulses attack that could be done by the terrorist on the electronic devices of the information system. Another way of preventing cyber terrorism is the use of cryptography security mechanism (Goodman, 2008). This is where the information system infrastructure such as the computer network and the data contained in the information system are encrypted. When these assets are encrypted it will be difficult for the cyber terrorists to penetrate through the information systems and launch their attacks. Online social hackers According to the ENISA report, these are attackers who are influenced by political and social issues. These types of attackers uses existing computer systems to address their issues or cause harm to others using social sites such as websites, institutions such as military, corporations or intelligence agents (Claudio Agostino, 2016). This form of hacking is aimed at manipulating information which in turn influences the social perspective or behavior of the victim. Online social hackers always get access to their victims information without the victims consent. This is achieved by the attacker impersonating his/her victim after acquiring the victims credentials either directly or indirectly. Once the attacker has been able to gain access to his/ her victims information, he uses the victims weakness to influence the social perspective or image of the victim. For instance in the case where an attacker accesses a victim credentials for a social site such as Facebook, the attacker might c hoose to post images or posts that might affect the social behavior of the legit Facebook owner. The attackers mainly use tools related to their targets hence bypassing privacy of their targets. The attackers uses various sources to access the social sites such as; loggers and social sites accounts among others. Also they use high tech techniques to penetrate the social platform of their target organizations. In order to mitigate such attacks, measures such as use of strong credentials to prevent hackers from accessing unauthorized information should be put into considerations. Such credentials should be hard to guess even through brute force attempts. Also the information shared or transmitted over an information system should be encrypted in such a way that it would be difficult for the attacker to manipulate it. Also access control mechanisms should be considered. This will ensure that attackers do not get access of the information they are not meant to see. This will reduce most of the social attacks that might be propagated via the information systems. Looking at the data provided on the involvement of threats agents in facilitating different security threats explained in the ENISA report, it is evident that all the highlighted threats can be caused by any of the threats agents which include; Corporations, cyber criminals, cyber terrorists, script kiddies, online social hackers, employees and nation states. This shows that there are no specific threats that are associated by specific agents of threat. Any agent can give rise to any threat and therefore the information systems should be protected against all security threats agents in order to make it more safe and secure from attacks. Improvement of ETL process Due to large amount of information in whole ETL process, an improvement of its performance is necessary in order to make the whole process smooth. Thus, the process could be improved by considering the followings: Use of rows which are only changed:this will reduce the large amount of data extracted in this process and in turn the processing speed of the ETL processes will be improved. The rows should be extracted by having tables containing information from previous ETL run date. Batching:This will be used to improve the performance of the whole process by either extracting the various rows by separating them logically or by recurring used data already extracted. This will ensure that data is being extracted at different intervals thus making the process more efficient. This would also in reduce the amount of data used for each implementation of ETL load. Thus diminishing the amount of load on the system network and various conflicts of resources at the main database. Implementation of SQL Server Destination: This will improve the performance of the ETL process since in the case where information is to pushed to a local server, the SQL server destination will reduce the process limitations. This will also provide the enable and disable options during the process of loading data thus reducing problems affecting the performance of ETL. ENISA satisfaction on it Current state of IT security As per this research, it is right to say that ENISA should be satisfied with its current state of IT security since they have identified information security threats and group them into categories and then provide mechanism on how to mitigate the identified threats. ENISA security measures help in both reducing the number of effects associated with these threats and also provide ways of securing the information through various infrastructures without interferences. Also the fact that the ETL process has improved the extractions of rows inserted or changed, this has led to improvement of ETL operations and functions at large. ENISA has also solved some of the threats contained in the embedded systems and other hardware devices by taking them out. Also all threats that could bring about information leakages or unauthorized access have been controlled by use of control access and use of safe and secure credentials. From the analysis carried out on the ENISA report, it is evident that intrusion detection systems, firewalls and loophole scanners have a greater impact on the protection of information systems. Benefits which are brought about by the use of these mechanisms are discussed below respectively. Intrusion detection systems IDS are those tools that are integrated into the information systems and acts like an alarm to any potential threats towards the information system. They are mainly on the network and are aimed at monitoring network traffic (Lake, 2017). These tools have sensors which detect any outside attack into the system. These systems help in creating threat awareness of someone or anything trying to activate nefarious activities such as identity theft, use of malicious code or even denial of service as seen in the ENISA report. Therefore, with IDS in place any intrusion will be automatically detected and if attended quickly no harm will befall the information system. The use of firewalls which is a system that is placed on the network or internet help in protecting various agents of threats as seen in the ENISA that aim at directing an attack into the information system or Big Data systems (Lacher, 2017). Some of the benefits of firewalls include; preventing unauthorized access to the system thus safe guarding the systems from external attack. Every activity within the information system network is filtered in the firewalls and if any activity is found to be from unauthorized persons then it is blocked. This prevents the information system from various attacks such as eavesdropping, interception and hijacking. It also prevents any nefarious activities such as use of malicious code to attack the system. Vulnerability scanners These are tools that are used to assess any loopholes in the information system which consist of networks, software computers and operating systems. These tools are good in detecting any security threat at an early stage and also help in preventing such threat from attacking the systems (HKSAR, 2008). The tools also can be able to detect unauthorized or rogue systems that act as a threat or might lead to security threat to information system. With these tools it is easy to conduct a thorough inspection and monitoring of all devices or infrastructures of information system as explained in the ENISA report. Therefore, the use of these tools will improve the security of the information system since solutions to the loop holes found are easily implemented thus making the system more resistant to external attacks. Conclusion It is therefore concluded that ENISA report for security standard has given the support to the information systems, networking and cyber security improvement. This support could impact the operations and functionalities of an IT organization. This report provides various strategies that are useful for mitigating insider security threats as well some of the top information system security threats from the ENISA report for analyzing the various impacts on the strategies and operational security. Also a number of detailed information on various Agents of threats which include online social hacking threats that affect organizational functions (Falkner, 2015). References Five steps to mitigate the risks of increasing cyber attacks in healthcare. MetricStream. Claudio Agostino, F. Z. (2016). Big Data Threat Landscape and Good Practise Guide. ENISA. EU: European Union Agency for Network and Information Security. Curran, P. (2016). Cyber Terrorism - "How real is the threat?". check marrx. Darmian. (2015). Towards Big Data Leakage Analysis. Proceedings of the privacy and security of Big Data workshop, 2-3. Falkner, J. H. (2015). "Identification of IT Security and legal requirements regarding Cloud services". Research. Gill, T. (2015). 2016s top information security threats. IT disaster recovery, cloud computing and information security news, 1-5. Goodman, S. (2008). Cyberterrorism and Security Measures. NAP. Henry, V. (2010). Top 10 Security Threats Every IT Pro Should Know. IT-opts, 2-4. Hesley, R. E. (2014). Identifying Information Security Threats. Previous Screen, 10-13. HKSAR, G. o. (2008). An Overview of Vulnerability Scanners. Government of the HKSAR. Lacher, S. (2017). What are advantages and disadvantages of firewalls. Leaf Group Ltd. Lake, J. (2017). The pros and cons of intrsuion detection systems. Komand Komunity. Leech, S. (2016). Cloud Security Threats - Abuse and nefarious use of cloud services. Grounded in cloud, 1-2. Mbele, P. (2014). Cyber-crime Treat and Mitigation. Johannesburg: iAfrikan. Panchenko, A. (2016). Nine Main Challenges in Big Data Security. Europe: Data Center Knowledge. WOOLLASTON, V. (2017). WannaCry ransomware: what is it and how to protect yourself. Ransomware, 1-2. Zadelhoff, M. v. (2016). The Biggest Cybersecurity Threats Are Inside Your Company. SECURITY PRIVACY, 1-5. Zetter, K. (2013). SOMEONE'S BEEN SIPHONING DATA THROUGH A HUGE SECURITY HOLE IN THE INTERNET. 1-8.