Sunday, May 24, 2020

Creative Management Essay examples - 1219 Words

Creative Management gives creative ideas of how a manger should present himself and how to approach different situations. Creative Management written by Shiegru Kobanashi, focuses mainly on the importance of teamwork, and on group management. How can we transform our present methods of production, under which we become slaves to machines, and regulations for the temporary increase in productivity, into one in which we are the masters of our work? How can we establish a system, which will make people work voluntarily and feel good about doing it. The book starts with waking up make sure you have proper hygiene. Wear simple clothes. Not close that stand out. A fussy dresser doesn’t impress people, but it gives a false impression of the†¦show more content†¦A manager should aim at responsible conduct that will cause others no trouble. Managers have to deal with all kinds of problems all day. They deal with all the problems of a business. If managers keep the problems of the business to themselves the problems may never be solved. When managers are having problems with their personnel they should stop and think whether it is something in their own conduct or attitude, which is causing the problem. It is hard not to bring a persons personal life into the business world but sometimes it happens. If out side of the job you are having problems and are very down because of it chances are you a portraying a negative vibe through out the work place. If this is the case you have to get a grip and put you personal life on hold and help the business by lightening up the atmosphere. If you are not the problem and other employees are having problems a manager should use empathy to help resolve the problem. If the problem takes on a larger scale a meeting should be held to discuss the problem or problems and come up with a well thought out resolution. Industrial organizations are not fully independent bodies, they do not exist solely for the employees of whom they consist. The managers are selected by people other than the workers, and have to report directly to managers at higher levels. However, that authority denies a worker, freedom to express their personality, and creates aShow MoreRelatedCreative Managment Essays : Creative Management1216 Words   |  5 PagesCreative Managment Essay, Research Paper Creative Management gives creative ideas of how a manger should present himself and how to approach different situations. Creative Management written by Shiegru Kobanashi, focuses mainly on the importance of teamwork, and on group management. How can we transform our present methods of production, under which we become slaves to machines, and regulations for the temporary increase in productivity, into one in which we are the masters of our work? How can weRead MoreCreative and Innovative Management7484 Words   |  30 Pages |TASK |   | |Understand the importance of |Evaluate current creative and innovative | | |creative and innovative management |management processes in an organization | | |in organizations | Read MoreCreative and Innovative Management3308 Words   |  14 PagesAssignment Report Creative Innovative Management By: Noor Ahmad Darwish Submitted to: Resources Development International Date: (14-04-2013) pg. 1 Table of Contents: Introduction†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. (Page 3) 1.1 Evaluates current creative and innovative management processes †¦..(Page 3) 1.2 Explains how managers in an organization can lead others to positively embrace innovation and change†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. (Page 4) 2.1 Assess the influence of vision and mission on generation of creative and innovative management processes inRead MoreCreative and Innovative Management Essays1296 Words   |  6 Pages Assignment brief Qualification BTEC – LEVEL 7 – Extended Diploma in Strategic Management Leadership Unit number and title Unit 6: Creative and Innovative Management Assignment title UNDERSTANDING THE THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS The purpose of this assignment is to understand how creative and innovative management systems are built and run in organizations. Scenario You are assigned to a CIO (Chief Innovation Officer) position ofRead MoreManagement Is The Human Process Of Creative Thinking987 Words   |  4 PagesIn the past, there has been a disagreement as what management is claimed to be. According to (, (No date)) Management is a distinct process which involves a series interconnected activities and is followed by achieving the best possible performance. If particular actions for example – planning, leading, and motivating the resources of a business are used sufficiently by an intelligent group then the targets aimed for will be achieved (Rawlins, 1995). Oxford English dictionaryRead MoreCreative and Innovative Management5388 Words   |  22 Pageseffective action to realize leadership potential. â€Å"Leadership is an interactive conversation that pulls people towards becoming comfortable with language of personal responsibility and commitment† Leadership is not meant for the people of top management, but everyone can discover power within himself and can lead â€Å"leaders are not born they are made†. Leadership is more about dealing with people verses tasks. Great Leaders are able to positively influence people to perform the tasks to them.†LeadershipRead MoreAcc 556 Week 11028 Words   |  5 PagesInternal Accountant’s Report to Management | |Accountant | Memo To: Management From: Internal Accountant Date: 10/8/2011 Re: Government Bid Occupational fraud is defined as the use of a person’s job for individual enrichment through the purposeful mishandling or misapplication of his or her employer’s capital or assets (WellsRead MoreI Don t Consider Myself A Good Writer1273 Words   |  6 Pages I recognize that my academic writing is fine for the most part, but I cannot call myself a writer at all until I can improve my creative writing-- particularly my poetry. I absolutely refuse, and paradoxically, I doubt that I will ever be truly satisfied with my creative writing skills-- particularly in my poetry. Going into this course, I had never taken a creative writing course and all of my english or language courses in high school focused if not on literature than on academic writing. WhichRead MoreMission Statement For Wrnite Brnin World810 Words   |  4 PagesAbout Us: WRiTE BRAiN WORLD is a children’s educational company offering the first-ever, standards-aligned curricula in the creative and academic art of children’s book authoring. Our programs [and products] are designed for students ranging from pre-k to high school to adult education and are implemented in almost all 50 states. While meeting the needs of every type of learner exactly where they are in their development, our curricula are especially beneficial for English Learners who comprise ourRead MoreDescribe the Strategic Management Failure in Enron That Led It Into Its Demise?1155 Words   |  5 Pagesstrategic management failure in Enron that led it into its demise? Enron was formed in 1986 from the merger of natural gas pipeline companies Houston Natural Gas and Internorth. At the time of filing for Chapter 11 Bankruptcy protection in December 2001, Enron had a portfolio of diversified activities ranging from the transportation of natural gas, the generation transmission and distribution of electricity; marketing of natural gas, electricity and other commodities and related risk management and

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Frailty Syndrome As Elderly Individuals Essay - 1471 Words

Life expectancy has increased dramatically in the last century due primarily to the control of infectious diseases, especially in the younger cohorts and the improvement of medical care and nutrition. This has, however, resulted in a large percentage of the older population suffering chronic diseases. The population within Canada is aging and we are living longer than we have in the past. According to Statistics Canada (2012), from 1920-1922, a man’s average lifespan was 59 years of age and a woman’s average lifespan was 61 years of age; in 2012, this has now increased to 79 for men and 83 for women. This increasing lifespan has created a new frontier in the health and wellbeing of the elderly as it has resulted in a consequent increase in complex health care needs of elderly people with Frailty Syndrome. Fried et al. (2005) identify Frailty Syndrome as elderly individuals â€Å"meeting three out of five phenotypic criteria indicating compromised energetics: low grip strength, low energy, slowed walking speed, low physical activity, and/or Health care systems across Canada are becoming strained by this aging cohort and will continue to become even more so in the coming years. It is estimated that the number of frail elderly in Canada will â€Å"double to well over 2 million within the next 20 years† (Young, 2015, pg. 1) and it is imperative that we look at how we are going to be able to support this through changes in our healthcare system. One means of doing this is to create moreShow MoreRelatedFrailty: A Condition of the Elderly1460 Words   |  6 PagesFrailty Introduction ‘Frailty thy name is woman emotionally refers to his mother Hamlet (Act 1, Scene 2). While the term â€Å"frailty† has been around for a while, the use of it in a medical literature has only been evolving in the past 30 years. However, condition with similar meaning, was described back in 1914 in a publication â€Å"The Diseases of Old Age and their Treatment† (Nascher, 1914). In this publication Nascher describes a condition of his elderly patients as â€Å"senile disability† or â€Å"senileRead MoreThe Treatment Of Muscle Mass Essay1569 Words   |  7 Pagesthe loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength that occurs with aging. ( Cruz-Jentoft et al., 2010). Sarcopenia is considered one of the geriatric syndromes because its prevalence in older populations (Chien, et al 2008). Sarcopenia leads to functional disabilities, decrease mobility, falls, and fractures, which lead to the loss of independence, frailty, and also increased risk of mortality (Freiberger et al., 2011). There are no effective treatments for sarcopenia yet. Pharmacological trials areRead MoreSymptoms And Treatment Of Early Mobility1487 Words   |  6 Pagesdecreased o Losing balance o Weight-bearing ability decreased o Diaphoresis present o Chest pain o Dizzy FRAILTY: There is no consensus on a single precise and complete definition of frailty[12]. Numerous authors and investigators have offered multiple definitions based on their understanding and interpretation of this concept. From a clinical perspective, frailty can be defined as a syndrome of decreased physiological reserve (physical and cognitive) and a decline in the resistance to stressorsRead MoreAn Evaluation Of The Nih Clinical Trial Registry1777 Words   |  8 PagesIntroduction The number of older individuals undergoing HSCT for malignant disease has risen considerably over the years. Between 2007- 2013, 22% of allogeneic transplants and 44% of autologous transplants were in patients older than 60 years of age1. The rise of HSCT in this age group can be attributed to the use of reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) regimen and advances in post-HSCT supportive care2,3. HSCT is a potential curative treatment for a number of malignant hematologic diseases suchRead MoreHistory Of Sarcopenia ( Sarx ) Was First Used For Muscle And Penia For Loss1031 Words   |  5 Pagesand it is one of the biggest health care challenges. With advanced health care provided nowadays seniors above the age of 65 years – are living longer. It is expected that by 2040 1 in 4 Canadians will be seniors. Sarcopenia is a common disease of elderly with a prevalence ranging from 5 to 13% in 60 to 70 years old and 11 to 50% in 80 years old or older people as a major public health problem (Patel et al.). Studies in the UK has reported the prevalence of sarcopenia in older people aging 65 and aboveRead MoreThe Treatment Of Muscle Mass Essay1935 Words   |  8 Pagesthe loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength that occurs with aging. ( Cruz-Jentoft et al., 2010). Sarcopenia is considered one of the geriatric syndromes because its prevalence in older populations (Chien, et al 2008). Sarcopenia leads to functional disabilities, decrease mobility, falls, and fractures, which lead to the loss of independence, frailty, and also increased risk of mortality (Freiberger et al., 2011). There are no effective treatments for sarcopenia yet. Pharmacological trials areRead MoreIncreasing Population Of Older People Essay1600 Words   |  7 Pagesfunctional ability (Gopinath B, Russell J, Flood VM, Burlutsky G, Mitchell P, 2014). Elderly with poor overall diet quality are likely to have suboptimal levels of nutrition biomarkers; this could negatively affect quality of life and functional independence (Gopinath B, Russell J, Flood VM, Burlutsky G, Mitchell P, 2014). Epidemiologic studies commonly have demonstrated nutritional deficits in 10-20 % of elderly people living at home and up to 60% in persons living in institutions in parallel withRead MoreThe Effect Of Daytime Sleepiness On Aged Care Residents3515 Words   |  15 Pageshl=enq=Sleep+Disordered+Breathing+with+Excessive+Daytime+Sleepiness+is+a+Risk+Factor+for+Mortality+in+Older+AdultsbtnG=as_sdt=1%2C5as_sdtp= †¢ †¢ MoreThe Benefits of Strength Training1449 Words   |  6 Pages2006, p. 135). Some data suggest that the pattern of motor unit activation and the number of motor units activated are equally as important the frequency of activation in producing increased strength (Gabriel, Kamen Frost, 2006, p. 136). When an individual performs specific exercises repeatedly the motor units that control the activated muscles learn to activate in a simultaneous pattern, increasing strength. This can lead to intermuscular coordination allowing muscles to distribute motor unit activationRead MoreResearch Task: Give examples, of the kinds of influences that affect children and young persons’ development including: (a) Personal factors (health), (b) External factors (environment)1121 Words   |  5 PagesAlso, long terms in Hospital or confinement in bed, frailty of body etc. prevent them from physical exertion such as running, skipping, etc. Long absences from school, family, as well as limited interaction socially and physically with other children their age, can in many cases also affect their other areas of development; such as their social, physical, cognitive/intellectual development. †¢ Learning difficulties; ADHD, ADD, Autism, Down’s syndrome etc. all affect a child and young person’s ability

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Identification of Active Compounds Free Essays

Some plants have more than one chemical as an active principle responsible for their biological properties. Phytochemical tests was done to find the presence of the active chemical constituents such as alkaloid, glycosides, flavonoids, reducing sugars, triterpenes, phenolic acid and tannis. Detailed Phytochemical screening was carried out as per standard methods. We will write a custom essay sample on Identification of Active Compounds or any similar topic only for you Order Now (Kokate, 2000; Habone, 1999; Tiwari et al., 2011). Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Analysis: To find the bioactive compound in the extracts and their quantification, it was further analyzed by GC/Ms. The various crude extracts of the plants were analyzed by using a Shimadzu, 2010 equipped with a splitless mode injector system,a flame photometric detector and a TRB 5 MS capillary column with 30m length,0.25 mm internal diameter and 0.25 um stationary film thickness prepared from Phenomenex was used for determination of biopesticide. The oven temperature was hold at 50? for 1 min then programmed at 25 ?/min to 125? ,from 125? to 300? at the rate of 10oC/min and finally holds for 15 min. The minimum detection limit of GC-MS for the determination of pesticide was 0.1ppb.The total time for one GC run was 30 min.Other operating conditions were as follows:ultra pure helium,passed through a molecular sieve trap and trap oxygen was used as the carrier gas at constant linear velocity of 40.7 cm/sec. The injection port temperature was 250?and used in splitless mode at ratio of 10:00.The detector temperature was hold at 280?.A hydrogen generator instrument was applied to supply hydrogen gas for flame photometric detector (FPD)at a flow of 1.22ml/min . The percentage composition of the crude extract constituents was expressed as a percentage by peak area. Total GC running time was. Interpretation on mass spectrum GC-MS was conducted using the database of national institute of standard and technology (NIST). The mass spectrum of the unknown component was compared with the spectrum of the known components stored in the NIST Library. Results:There are several factors that can interfere qualitatively and quantitatively in the results, in the metabolites presence, one of them can be seasonal factor, which may be considered as the period of seed collection. The present study made an effort to screen for its photochemicals the photochemical screening of methanolic extract of piper nigrum showed maximum number of metabolites like alkaloid, flavanoids, carbohydrates, proteins, phenols, phytosterols, tannins in table 1. Table No1: Photochemical screening of Piper NigrumS. No Phytochemicals Test Performed Result1. Alkaloids Hager’s testMayer’s Reagent Positive2. Carbohydrates Molish test Positive3. Saponins Froth test Negative4. Glycosides Borntager,s test Negative5. ProtienAmino acids Biuret’s Test Positive6. Phytosterol Libermann –Burchard’test Negative7. Phenolic compounds Ferric chloride test compounds Positive8. Flavonoids Alkaline Reagent testLead Acetate test Positive9. Terpenoids Salkowski’s test Positive10. Tannins Neutral FeCl3 PositiveFg: GC-MS Chromatogram of Piper Nigrum L. Table 2: Quantitaive analysis of P.Nigrum: Name Conc(%) Ret.Time m/z Area1. 3-Carene 7.846 3.574 93.00 9772. Delta-3-carene 18.671 3.655 93.00 23253. Alpha –Limonene 1.233 3.828 93.00 1554. Cinene 15.492 3.903 93.00 23125. Beta-Linalool 1.328 5.049 71.00 1656. Delta-Elemene 11.678 10.100 121.00 14547. Ylangene 0.418 10.420 121.00 528. Copaene 6.270 11.048 105.00 7819. Levo-beta-Elemene 1.222 11.390 93.00 15210. Caryophyllene 32.261 12.117 69.00 401911. Alpha Caryophyllene 7.053 12.919 93.00 87812. Alpha-Curcumene 0.557 13.473 73.00 8313. Eudesma-4(14),11-diene 0.749 13.684 93.00 9314. Alpha-Selinene 0.561 13.879 189.00 6915. Beta-Bisabolene 0.426 14.104 69.00 5316. Delta-Cadinene 2.335 14.441 161.00 29017. Caryophylleneoxide 1.110 15.953 43.00 13818. Myristyl chloride 0.614 16.049 43.00 7619. Ledol 0.097 16.558 43.00 1220. (-)-Spathulenol 3.700 17044 43.00 46021. Ar-tumerone 3.657 17.740 83.00 455In the present study ,the chemical profile of black pepper was identified using GC-MS.GC-MS investigation revealed that 21 compounds are identified in Black pepper extract . The major components of black pepper were caryophyllene (32.261),delta.3-carene (18.671) as well as Cinene(15.492) as indicated in Table 2.DiscussionStudies have reported that the spicy tang of pepper is due to the presence of piperamides which are the pungent bioactive alkaloids accumulate in the skin and seeds of fruit.(Nahak and Sahu, 2011) reported the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, phenol, essential oil and protein in Piper nigrum.The result of the study corroborates with findings of (Zahira et al.,2016) which shows alkaloid,flavanoid,carbohydrates,tannins,proteins,phenols,phytosterols,while terpeniods and saponins were absent.(Priya and Sarvana 2016) Revealed the presence of 15 components of blackpepper out of that highest integrated percentage of Aspartic acid is present and moderate amout of Limonene,Betasteosterol,and Asarinin.Previous study on GC-MS analysis were carried by (Morshed et al.,2017 )they reported that the Carophyllene ,Limonene and camphene were major components in oil of blacl pepper which were close to our findings. The differences are probably due to various geographic and ecological conditions.ConclusionThe phytochemical screening of methanolic extract of black pepper decleared the presence of many phytochemical components.The GC-MS analysis showed a number of components.The present study may be useful for further study in future to explore the biosynthetic activity of black pepper. How to cite Identification of Active Compounds, Papers

Monday, May 4, 2020

Pros and Cons of Intrsuion Detection Systems - Free Samples

Question: Discuss about the Pros and Cons of Intrsuion Detection Systems. Answer: Introduction: The case study is a research report/study conducted by the European agency for Network and Information security commonly known as ENISA. This is an organization that provides networking and information system security expertise in European Union member states, private firms and it citizen at large. This report provides a thorough analysis of security threats related to Big Data. The study looks into various big data assets which include abstract assets, virtual assets (for example, data), physical assets human resources and money. These assets are related to information and communication technology. ENISA provides various threats to these big data assets which include; loss of information, eavesdropping, interception and hijacking, nefarious activity, legal-related threats and organization-related threats (Panchenko, 2016). The report also provides more detailed information on some of the threat agents that brings about various big data threats. These agents are; corporations, cyber criminals, cyber terrorists, online social workers, script kiddies, employees and nation states (Hesley, 2014). All these agents posts various security issues to existing information systems as explained in the case study. Finally, the report by ENISA gives some of the recommendations or best practices in which can be undertaken in order to minimize these security threats to information systems. Some of which are; Access control, cryptography, information system security measures design among others. This report is based on various sources which include; desk research, conference papers, articles, technical blogs and open source information related to big data (Claudio Agostino, 2016). The report highlights various security techniques that are related to these information infrastructures. ENISAs Big Data security infrastructure diagram representing this can be shown below. The diagram above represents relationship between various categories of Big Data Assets, security techniques used and different infrastructures through which security measures are implemented to the data contained in these infrastructures. Top Threats The following are some of the top threats that I would consider more significant and which has a greater impact when it comes to the security of Big Data assets and infrastructure (Zadelhoff, 2016). According to this report, nefarious activities involve manipulation of existing information infrastructures by attackers using specific software or tools. These actions might lead to interference with the security of the Big Data infrastructures such as Storage models, software, hardware and computing models (Leech, 2016). Some of the security threats related to nefarious activities include; use of malicious code commonly known as virus to paralyze the operations of Big Data infrastructures. Identity theft which involve use of information system credentials by unauthorized persons, denial of information services, use of rogue certificates and audit tools misuse. The reason as to why nefarious threats are rated high is because in most cases where a malicious code is used, it always target large data sources especially in big company or government organizations (Henry, 2010). For instance, the use of wannacry virus that attack major organization information systems in 2017 (WOOLLASTON, 2017). Eavesdropping, interception and hijacking This is where attackers intercept information being transmitted via the information systems infrastructures such as network. The attackers tap on the transmission media by accessing the victims network and thereafter gaining unauthorized access to the data contained in the information system. This interferes with integrity and confidentiality aspect of the information contained in the information systems (Gill, 2015). This threat is one of the top since most it is done via the internet and once the attacker has established a connection with the victims system, a lot of damages can be caused; such as information theft, modification or even rendering services unavailable (Zetter, 2013). This is information is lost by mistake and it fall into the hands of unintended people. This leakage of information would be as a result of unintended information sharing such as via emails, web applications or inadequate information on the information system in use (Darmian, 2015). This kind of information system threat can damage the victim largely. For instance, if the data contained in the information system belongs to patients in a hospital, then the information is leaked to the public by mistake, the victim in this case the patient will be so much damaged and traumatized as his/her medical information will no longer be confidential as it should be the case. Big Data Security Threat Agents These are people who conduct unauthorized activities using the internet or networking channels by targeting an information system. These criminals conduct these activities for their own personal gain. The motive of cyber criminals would be information theft or modification of information such as Point of sales, banking systems among others for the purpose of financial gains. The victims of cyber criminals can be local, national or international organizations such as banks, insurance companies, and many more (Mbele, 2014). According to a report be Peter, countries such as South Africa, China and Russia were highly affected by cybercrime between 2011 and 2013 (Mbele, 2014). Cyber criminals can be controlled in various ways. One of the ways in Control of Access. This feature of security entails a way of authorization level classification process where each system user has his/her own access credentials to a defined part of the information system. This will prevent unauthorized users from accessing unauthorized information thus reducing cybercrime rate. Another mechanism is the use of anti-virus by organization handling big data. This will ensure that malicious software or codes used by cyber criminals do not penetrate into the information system. Another control of cybercrime is monitoring of the information system infrastructure and scanning all the information contained in the system. This will ensure that every unauthorized behavior is detected and taken care of before any damages are made (c, 2017). ENISA report mentions cyber terrorist as one of the information system security threats. Cyber terrorist are those people who use internet to establish attacks by using viruses, malwares to computer networks belonging to various people or organizations. Some of the targets of these terrorist include; individuals, governments and organizations. This act of terrorism is always propagated by political or religious ideologies. The main aim of cyber terrorist is to cause damage and bring about destructions through the use of internet and information systems of their victims (Curran, 2016). To mitigate cyber terrorism various security measures can be used. These security techniques include; Design of information system security mechanisms from the start. This is a preventive measure that will ensure that the information system is secure from any attacks. Consideration of this approach of integrating security measures into the information system during design will enhance security by ensuring that intended attacks are prevented and therefore damages intended by cyber terrorist are avoided. Another security measure is physical isolation of the information systems. This will ensure that physical attacks such as theft of information system assets or devices are prevented. This approach also will reduce electromagnetic pulses attack that could be done by the terrorist on the electronic devices of the information system. Another way of preventing cyber terrorism is the use of cryptography security mechanism (Goodman, 2008). This is where the information system infrastructure such as the computer network and the data contained in the information system are encrypted. When these assets are encrypted it will be difficult for the cyber terrorists to penetrate through the information systems and launch their attacks. Online social hackers According to the ENISA report, these are attackers who are influenced by political and social issues. These types of attackers uses existing computer systems to address their issues or cause harm to others using social sites such as websites, institutions such as military, corporations or intelligence agents (Claudio Agostino, 2016). This form of hacking is aimed at manipulating information which in turn influences the social perspective or behavior of the victim. Online social hackers always get access to their victims information without the victims consent. This is achieved by the attacker impersonating his/her victim after acquiring the victims credentials either directly or indirectly. Once the attacker has been able to gain access to his/ her victims information, he uses the victims weakness to influence the social perspective or image of the victim. For instance in the case where an attacker accesses a victim credentials for a social site such as Facebook, the attacker might c hoose to post images or posts that might affect the social behavior of the legit Facebook owner. The attackers mainly use tools related to their targets hence bypassing privacy of their targets. The attackers uses various sources to access the social sites such as; loggers and social sites accounts among others. Also they use high tech techniques to penetrate the social platform of their target organizations. In order to mitigate such attacks, measures such as use of strong credentials to prevent hackers from accessing unauthorized information should be put into considerations. Such credentials should be hard to guess even through brute force attempts. Also the information shared or transmitted over an information system should be encrypted in such a way that it would be difficult for the attacker to manipulate it. Also access control mechanisms should be considered. This will ensure that attackers do not get access of the information they are not meant to see. This will reduce most of the social attacks that might be propagated via the information systems. Looking at the data provided on the involvement of threats agents in facilitating different security threats explained in the ENISA report, it is evident that all the highlighted threats can be caused by any of the threats agents which include; Corporations, cyber criminals, cyber terrorists, script kiddies, online social hackers, employees and nation states. This shows that there are no specific threats that are associated by specific agents of threat. Any agent can give rise to any threat and therefore the information systems should be protected against all security threats agents in order to make it more safe and secure from attacks. Improvement of ETL process Due to large amount of information in whole ETL process, an improvement of its performance is necessary in order to make the whole process smooth. Thus, the process could be improved by considering the followings: Use of rows which are only changed:this will reduce the large amount of data extracted in this process and in turn the processing speed of the ETL processes will be improved. The rows should be extracted by having tables containing information from previous ETL run date. Batching:This will be used to improve the performance of the whole process by either extracting the various rows by separating them logically or by recurring used data already extracted. This will ensure that data is being extracted at different intervals thus making the process more efficient. This would also in reduce the amount of data used for each implementation of ETL load. Thus diminishing the amount of load on the system network and various conflicts of resources at the main database. Implementation of SQL Server Destination: This will improve the performance of the ETL process since in the case where information is to pushed to a local server, the SQL server destination will reduce the process limitations. This will also provide the enable and disable options during the process of loading data thus reducing problems affecting the performance of ETL. ENISA satisfaction on it Current state of IT security As per this research, it is right to say that ENISA should be satisfied with its current state of IT security since they have identified information security threats and group them into categories and then provide mechanism on how to mitigate the identified threats. ENISA security measures help in both reducing the number of effects associated with these threats and also provide ways of securing the information through various infrastructures without interferences. Also the fact that the ETL process has improved the extractions of rows inserted or changed, this has led to improvement of ETL operations and functions at large. ENISA has also solved some of the threats contained in the embedded systems and other hardware devices by taking them out. Also all threats that could bring about information leakages or unauthorized access have been controlled by use of control access and use of safe and secure credentials. From the analysis carried out on the ENISA report, it is evident that intrusion detection systems, firewalls and loophole scanners have a greater impact on the protection of information systems. Benefits which are brought about by the use of these mechanisms are discussed below respectively. Intrusion detection systems IDS are those tools that are integrated into the information systems and acts like an alarm to any potential threats towards the information system. They are mainly on the network and are aimed at monitoring network traffic (Lake, 2017). These tools have sensors which detect any outside attack into the system. These systems help in creating threat awareness of someone or anything trying to activate nefarious activities such as identity theft, use of malicious code or even denial of service as seen in the ENISA report. Therefore, with IDS in place any intrusion will be automatically detected and if attended quickly no harm will befall the information system. The use of firewalls which is a system that is placed on the network or internet help in protecting various agents of threats as seen in the ENISA that aim at directing an attack into the information system or Big Data systems (Lacher, 2017). Some of the benefits of firewalls include; preventing unauthorized access to the system thus safe guarding the systems from external attack. Every activity within the information system network is filtered in the firewalls and if any activity is found to be from unauthorized persons then it is blocked. This prevents the information system from various attacks such as eavesdropping, interception and hijacking. It also prevents any nefarious activities such as use of malicious code to attack the system. Vulnerability scanners These are tools that are used to assess any loopholes in the information system which consist of networks, software computers and operating systems. These tools are good in detecting any security threat at an early stage and also help in preventing such threat from attacking the systems (HKSAR, 2008). The tools also can be able to detect unauthorized or rogue systems that act as a threat or might lead to security threat to information system. With these tools it is easy to conduct a thorough inspection and monitoring of all devices or infrastructures of information system as explained in the ENISA report. Therefore, the use of these tools will improve the security of the information system since solutions to the loop holes found are easily implemented thus making the system more resistant to external attacks. Conclusion It is therefore concluded that ENISA report for security standard has given the support to the information systems, networking and cyber security improvement. This support could impact the operations and functionalities of an IT organization. This report provides various strategies that are useful for mitigating insider security threats as well some of the top information system security threats from the ENISA report for analyzing the various impacts on the strategies and operational security. Also a number of detailed information on various Agents of threats which include online social hacking threats that affect organizational functions (Falkner, 2015). References Five steps to mitigate the risks of increasing cyber attacks in healthcare. MetricStream. Claudio Agostino, F. Z. (2016). Big Data Threat Landscape and Good Practise Guide. ENISA. EU: European Union Agency for Network and Information Security. Curran, P. (2016). Cyber Terrorism - "How real is the threat?". check marrx. Darmian. (2015). Towards Big Data Leakage Analysis. Proceedings of the privacy and security of Big Data workshop, 2-3. Falkner, J. H. (2015). "Identification of IT Security and legal requirements regarding Cloud services". Research. Gill, T. (2015). 2016s top information security threats. IT disaster recovery, cloud computing and information security news, 1-5. Goodman, S. (2008). Cyberterrorism and Security Measures. NAP. Henry, V. (2010). Top 10 Security Threats Every IT Pro Should Know. IT-opts, 2-4. Hesley, R. E. (2014). Identifying Information Security Threats. Previous Screen, 10-13. HKSAR, G. o. (2008). An Overview of Vulnerability Scanners. Government of the HKSAR. Lacher, S. (2017). What are advantages and disadvantages of firewalls. Leaf Group Ltd. Lake, J. (2017). The pros and cons of intrsuion detection systems. Komand Komunity. Leech, S. (2016). Cloud Security Threats - Abuse and nefarious use of cloud services. Grounded in cloud, 1-2. Mbele, P. (2014). Cyber-crime Treat and Mitigation. Johannesburg: iAfrikan. Panchenko, A. (2016). Nine Main Challenges in Big Data Security. Europe: Data Center Knowledge. WOOLLASTON, V. (2017). WannaCry ransomware: what is it and how to protect yourself. Ransomware, 1-2. Zadelhoff, M. v. (2016). The Biggest Cybersecurity Threats Are Inside Your Company. SECURITY PRIVACY, 1-5. Zetter, K. (2013). SOMEONE'S BEEN SIPHONING DATA THROUGH A HUGE SECURITY HOLE IN THE INTERNET. 1-8.

Saturday, March 28, 2020

Preparation of Detergents Essay Sample free essay sample

If you look up detergent in a dictionary it is merely defined as cleansing agent. During the last two to three decennaries. nevertheless. the word detergent has tended to connote man-made detergent. or syndet for short. instead than the older soap. In fact. commercial preparations consist of a figure of constituents. and we shall utilize the term surface-active agent. or it’s abbreviation wetting agent. to depict the particular active ingredients that give detergents their unusual belongingss. Man-made detergents dissolve or tend to fade out in H2O or other dissolvers. To enable them to make this. they require distinguishable chemical features. Hydrophilic ( H2O loving ) groupings in their molecular construction. and hydrophobic ( H2O detesting ) groupings. assist the detergent in it’s â€Å"detergency† action. The first soaps were manufactured in ancient times through a assortment of methods. most normally by boiling fats and ashes. Archeologists unearthing site s in antediluvian Babylon have found grounds bespeaking that such soaps were used as far back as 2800 B. We will write a custom essay sample on Preparation of Detergents Essay Sample or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page C. In Europe. the usage of soap declined during the Middle Ages. However. by the 15th century. its usage and industry had resumed. and an olive-oil based soap produced in Castile. Spain. was being sold in many parts of the known universe. Castile soap. which is still available today. has retained its repute as a high-quality merchandise. During the colonial period and the 18th century. Americans made their ain soap at place. where most continued to bring forth it until soap industry shifted off from single places to go an industry during the 1930s. The first detergent. or unreal soap. was produced in Germany during World War I. In 1946. the first built detergent appeared. consisting a wetting agent ( a surface-acting agent or soap ) and a builder ( a chemical that enhances the public presentation of the wetting agent every bit good as rendering the laundering procedure more effectual in other ways ) . Pushed along by economic prosperity and the development of comparatively cheap rinsing machines in the aftermath of World War II. detergent gross revenues soared ; by 1953. they had surpassed soap gross revenues in the United States. Categorization OF SYNTHETIC DETERGENTSDetergents are classified as either:* Anionic: negatively charged caput* Cationic: positively charged caput* Non-ionic or impersonal: uncharged caput Class| Example| Chemical Properties| Uses|Anionic| CH3 ( CH2 ) 11OSO3-Na+Na dodecyl sulfate| Usually contain eithera sulphate ( SO4 ) head| widely used due to be and public presentation – wash detergents-dishwashing liquids-oven cleaners|| CH3 ( CH2 ) 11C6H4SO3-Na+Na dodecylbenzenesulfonate| or a sulfonate ( SO3 ) head| |Cationic| CH3 ( CH2 ) 11NH3+Cl-dodecylamine hydrochlorideCH3 ( CH2 ) 15N ( CH3 ) 3+Br-hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide| Usually contain a modified ammonium ion as active site which produces a bactericidal action. More expensive than anionic detergents. | -cleaning plastics -hair shampoos -nappy washes-fabric softeners and conditioners|Non-ionicor neutral| CH3 ( CH2 ) 14COOCH2C ( CH2OH ) 3pentaerythrityl palmitate| Contains polar parts. eg. OH groups. to supply H2O solubility. No ionic groups so no reaction in difficult H2O.Low floging prevents froth build up in dish washers. | -car shampoos -dishwasher detergents-cosmetics| Anionic DetergentsA category of detergents holding a negatively charged surface-active ion. such as Na alkyl benzine sulfonate Neutral or non-ionic detergents:Non-ionic detergents are used in dish lavation liquids. Since the detergent does non hold any ionic groups. it does non respond with difficult H2Oions. In add-on. nonionized detergents foam less than ionic detergents. The detergent molecules must hold some polar parts to supply the necessary H2O solubility. Cationic Detergents: Another category of detergents have a positive ionic charge and are called â€Å"cationic† detergents. In add-on to being good cleaning agents. they besides possess germicidal belongingss which makes them utile in infirmaries. Most of these detergents are derived functions of ammonium hydroxide. A cationic detergent is most likely to be found in a shampoo or apparels â€Å"rinse† . The intent is to neutralize the inactive electrical charges from residuary non-ionic detergent ( negative ions ) detergent molecules. Since the negative charges repel each other. the positive cationic detergent neutralizes this charge. It may be surprising that it even works because the ammonium ( +1 ) N is buried under the methyl groups as can be seen in the infinite make fulling theoretical account. In the graphic on the left. the polar portion of the molecule consists of three intoxicant groups and an ester group. The non-polar portion is the usual long hydrocarbon concatenation Bile Salts – Intestinal Natural Detergents Bile acids are produced in the liver and secreted in the bowel via the saddle sore vesica. Bile acids are oxidation merchandises of cholesterin. First the cholesterin is converted to the trihydroxy derived function incorporating three intoxicant groups. The terminal of the methane series concatenation at C # 17 is converted into an acid. and eventually the amino acid. glycine is bonded through an amide bond. The acerb group on the glycine is converted to a salt. The gall salt is called sodiumglycoholate. Another salt can be made with a chemical called taurine. The chief map of gall salts is to move as a soap or detergent in the digestive procedures. The major action of a gall salt is to emulsify fats and oils into smaller droplets. The assorted enzymes can so interrupt down the fats and oils. Amphoteric Detergents These contain both acidic and basic groups in their molecule. and can move as cationic or anionic detergents. depending on the pH of the solution. or as both cation and anion. Amphoterics These have the features of both anionic detergents and cationic cloth softeners. They tend to work best at impersonal pH. and are found in shampoo’s. tegument cleaners and rug shampoo. They are really stable in strong acidic conditions and have found favors for usage with hydrofluoric acid. Key Concepts* Man-made detergents can be made from petrochemicals. fats and oils. * Man-made detergent molecules. like soap molecules. by and large consist of a hydrophilic caput and a hydrophobic tail. * The hydrophobic. long hydrocarbon concatenation tail of the detergent molecule is attracted to atoms of oil or lubricating oil by scattering forces ( Van der Waals or London or Weak Intermolecular Forces ) . * The hydrophilic. charged or polar caput of the detergent molecule is attracted to H2O molecules. * Man-made detergents are less sensitive to the effects of Ca and Mg ions in difficult H2O. * A figure of additives are used to heighten the cleansing ability of detergents. * Branched-chain man-made detergents are far less biodegradable than continuous-chain man-made detergents. Natural MaterialsAlthough people normally refer to laundry detergent as â€Å"soap. † it is really a man-made combination that maps much like soap. with certain major betterments. Soap cleans because each soap molecule consists of a hydrocarbon concatenation and a carboxylic group ( fatty acids ) that perform two of import maps. The carboxylate terminal of the soap molecule is hydrophilic. significance that it is attracted to H2O. while the hydrocarbon terminal of the molecule is both hydrophobic ( repelled by H2O ) and attracted to the oil and lubricating oil in soil. While the hydrophobic terminal of a soap molecule attaches itself to dirt. the hydrophilic terminal attaches itself to H2O. The soil attached to the carboxylate terminal of the molecule is chemically dragged off from the apparels being cleaned and into the wash H2O. Properly fomenting and rinsing the apparels furthers the cleaning procedure. The major trouble with utilizing soap to clean wash shows up when it is used in difficult water—water that is rich in natural minerals such as Ca. Mg. Fe. and manganese. When these chemicals react with soap. they form an indissoluble curd called a precipitate. Difficult to rinse out. the precipitate leaves seeable sedimentations on vesture and makes fabric experience stiff. Even H2O that is non particularly hard will finally bring forth precipitates over a period of clip. While the hydrocarbons used in soap by and large come from workss or animate beings. those used in detergent can be derived from rough oil. Adding sulphuric acid to the processed hydrocarbon produces a molecule similar to the fatty acids in soap. The add-on of an base to the mixture creates a surfactant molecule In the liquidizer method of doing pulverization laundry detergent. the ingredients—surfactant. builders. antiredeposition agents. and perfumes—are merely blended together in a sociable. released onto a conveyer belt. and packaged consequently. This method is favored by smaller companies. that will non bond with the minerals in difficult H2O. therefore avoiding the accretion of precipitates. In add-on to a wetting agent. modern detergent contains several other ingredients. Among the most important are builders. chemicals which serve several intents. Most significantly. they increase the efficiency of the wetting agent. They besides sequester minerals in difficult H2O. intending that they hold them in solution. forestalling them from precipitating out. Furthermore. builders can emulsify oil and lubricating oil into bantam globules that can be washed off. Some. like Na silicate. inhibit corrosion and assist assure that the detergent will non damage a washing machine. Still other builders contribute to the chemical balance of the wash H2O. doing certain that it conduces to effectual lavation. Modern detergents have several other ingredients including antiredeposition agents. chemicals that help forestall dirt from settling back on washed apparels. Fluorescent whitening agents are besides common. By change overing unseeable ultraviolet visible radiation into seeable bluish visible radiation. these aid to keep brightness or whiteness. Oxygen bleaches such as Na perborate better the detergence of the mixture. particularly in low-phosphate or no-phosphate merchandises. every bit good as assisting to take some types of discolorations. Processing AIDSs such as Na sulphate are besides used to forestall caking and to standardise merchandise denseness. Enzymes and aromas are besides found in commercial detergents. Enzymes ( a type of protein ) interrupt down some discolorations to do them easier to take and are an indispensable ingredient in assorted pre-soak merchandises used to handle to a great extent dirty apparels prior to washing. Aromas or aromas cover the smell of the soil and any chemical odor from the detergent itself. Suds control agents besides have a function in detergents—too many lathers can do mechanical jobs with a washing machine. The Manufacturing Procedure IntroductionIn the mid-1970’s when the linear TAED for low temperature was introduced the wash temperature could be reduced to significantly without loss of public presentation. therefore cut downing the sum of energy consumed by families. In add-on. there is now a important tendency towards tablets alternatively of pulverization. The beauty of the tablet format is the ability to offer an easy to manage merchandise that contains the exact sum of ingredients to supply optimum consequences. The chief environmental benefit is the significant decrease of chemical disposal into waste H2O intervention while guaranting the best wash consequence. The exact preparation of each tablet is critical and dependent on the public presentation of the eating device for each ingredient in the production line. End Products Since the terminal of the 80’s detergent composings have been rich in proficient developments: for illustration the debut of compact ( higher denseness ) pulverizations with activated bleach. colour foils. the debut of tablets and more late capsules. There is besides a tendency towards the usage of concentrated liquids. Loss-in-weight feeders are mounted in carousel manner. These units meter enzymes. Weigh belt feeders command the flow of detersive ingredients into the procedure. Other belt feeders are used as majority flow metres. Detergent pulverizations. tablets and capsules of different trade names are by and large packed in bags and boxes of different sizes. | Weigh Belt feeders control the flow of detersive ingredients into the procedure. Loss-in-weight feeders are mounted in carousel manner. These units meter enzymes. | Although there are three ways of fabricating dry wash detergent. merely two are normally used today. In the liquidizer procedure favored by smaller companies. the ingredients are mixed in big VATs before being packaged. The machines used are really big: a common liquidizer holds 4. 000 lbs ( 1. 816 kgs ) of assorted stuff. but the liquidizers can suit tonss runing from 500 to 10. 000 lbs ( 227 to 4. 540 kgs ) . By industry criterions. these are little batches for which the liq uidizer procedure is ideal. While some subsiding may happen. the resulting detergent is of high quality and can vie with detergents made by other procedures. The 2nd normally used method of production is called the agglomeration procedure. Unlike the liquidizer procedure. it is uninterrupted. which makes it the pick of really big detergent makers. The agglomeration procedure can bring forth between 15. 000 and 50. 000 lbs ( 6. 800 and 22. 700 kgs ) of detergent per hr. In the 3rd method. dry ingredients are blended in H2O before being dried with hot air. Although the resulting merchandise is of high quality. the fuel costs and technology jobs associated with discharge. reheating. and recycling the air have led to this method being mostly replaced by agglomeration. THE BLENDER PROCESS* First. ingredients are loaded into one of two machines: a toppling liquidizer or a thread liquidizer. The toppling liquidizer. shaped like a rectangular box. is turned and shaken from outside by a machine. while the thread liquidizer is a cylinder fitted with blades to grate and blend the ingredients. After the ingredients inside the liquidizer have been mixed. a room access at the underside of the bowl is opened. With the liquidizer still fomenting the ingredients. the mix is allowed to run out onto a conveyer belt or other imparting device. The belt so moves the detergent to another country of the mill where it can be dropped into boxes or cartons for bringing to jobbers or distributers. THE AGGLOMERATION PROCESS* In this method. dry ingredients for a detergent are first fed into a big machine known as a Shuggi agglomerator ( Shuggi is the maker ) . Inside the agglomerator. crisp. twirling blades mix the stuff to a all right consistence ; the procedure resembles nutrient being textured inside a nutrient processor. * After the dry ingredients have been blended. liquid ingredients are sprayed on the dry mix through noses fitted into the agglomerator’s walls. The blending continues. doing an exothermal ( heat-producing ) reaction to happen. The resulting mixture is a hot. syrupy liquid similar to gelatin that hasn’t hardened. * Next. the liquid is allowed to flux out of the agglomerator. As it leaves the machine. it collects on a drying belt where its ain heat. exposure to air. and hot air blowers render it friable—easy to oppress or crumple. The freshly made detergent is so pulverized and pushed through sizing screens that guarantee that no big bal ls of plain merchandise travel out to the market. The consequence of this procedure is a dry detergent made up of granules of the assorted detergent. THE SLURRY METHOD * In this procedure. ingredients are dissolved in H2O to make a slurry. With a pump. the slurry is blown through noses inside the top of a cone shaped container as hot. dry air is at the same time forced into the underside of the cone. As the slurry prohibitionists. â€Å"beads† of dry detergent autumn to the underside of the cone. where they can be collected for packaging. LIQUID DETERGENT * If the detergent is to be liquid instead than pulverization. it is merely assorted back in—after all ingredients are blended—with a solution consisting of H2O and assorted chemicals known as solubilizers. The solubilizers help the H2O and detergent blend together more to the full and equally. Quality Control Manufacturers invariably monitor the quality of their detergents. and they utilize the same proving methods to measure the effectivity of new merchandises. In one method. visible radiation is shined onto a piece of cloth that has been soiled and so washed in the trial detergent. The To do liquid detergent. the dry pulverization is merely assorted back in with a solution consisting of H2O and chemicals known as â€Å"solubilizers. † These chemicals help the H2O and detergent blend together more equally. sum of visible radiation reflected. compared to the sum reflected by a sample of the original cloth. is a step of cleanliness. A contemplation rate of 98 per centum is considered rather good and indicates that the detergent has cleaned decently. Another method involves laboratory combustion of a little sum of stuff that has been soiled and so laundered. The weight of the ashes. plus the weight of the gaseous consequences of the combustion. uncover how much of the soil remained in the cloth after washing. A consequence that is much higher than a clean trial sample indicates that a important sum of soil was retained in the laundered sample. Naturally. the end is to come as near to the weight of a clean control sample as possible. Production Procedure for Laundry Detergent Powder ProcessLaundry detergent production is typically a uninterrupted procedure. There are a big figure of ingredients which must be continuously. at the same time and accurately fed into a sociable or onto a conveyer belt. which in bend supplies the uninterrupted sociable. Feeding of Base Powder and Additives The base pulverization is produced from assorted solid and liquid ingredients. The existent mass flow rate of base pulverization being produced is metered by a Smart Weigh Belt. mounted at the discharge of either a spray tower or fluidized bed. Next. other loss-in-weight dry feeders add extra minor pulverization ingredients onto the conveyer belt with the base pulverization. The combined ingredients so enter a uninterrupted sociable. where liquid additives such as aromas are dosed in exact proportion utilizing liquid loss-in-weight feeders or liquid PID control. After blending. the detergent pulverization passes through a concluding sieving and metering phase. In the concluding measure. a Smart Weigh Belt transfers the finished merchandise into the wadding operation. There it flows straight to a wadding machine. tablet imperativeness or into FIBC’s for intermediate storage or majority conveyance. Typical Production Process for Laundry Detergent Powder Typical IngredientsThe pulverization feeder must manage a broad scope of ingredients such as:* Sodium carbonate* Sodium hydrogen carbonate* Sodium perborate* Sodium sulfate* Tetrahydrate* Sodium tripolyphosphate* Sodium silicates* Sodium percarbonate* Anionic detergents * Encapsulated enzymes* Colored beads* Anti-foaming pulverization* Polymers that release discolorations* Polymers that prevent new discolorations* Sodium silicates The liquid feeders supply:* Anionic detergents* Non-ionic* AromasSmart Weigh Belt Feeder for Base Powder ProductionThe K-Tron Smart Weigh Belt ( SWB ) feeder is the perfect solution for a compact gravimetric feeder which can manage big volumes of bulk stuff with different flow features. The SWB feeders offers uninterrupted online taring by utilizing two weigh faculties and are available in both 300 and 600 millimeter belt breadths. Automatic and uninterrupted online tarring of the weigh belt reduces dearly-won care. line closures and arduous manual standardization while at the same clip well bettering long term truth and stableness. The conveyer is removable from the chromium steel steel lodging via a telescopic support construction. This facilitates thorough cleansing of the feeder. Application A ; Technology* The application of the man-made detergents by and large produced a pronounced suppression of the lowering of the pH in plaques. but in no instance was the suppression complete. In comparable experiments Zephiran and Phemerol gave a greater grade of suppression than Damol and Tergitol-7. As a regulation. it was found that the eflect of the man-made detergents on the pH after 10 per cent glucose was much greater in the instances where the plaques were comparatively thin than when the plaques were comparatively thick. * Application of the man-made detergents in a solution incorporating an subsidiary substance. such as an alkaline buffer. did non significantly change the inhibitory consequence produced by the detergent. although some of the subsidiary agents did raise the pH degrees of both the control and trial pH curves. * The latest cleansing engineerings include enzyme-containing detersive preparations and zeolite-based detergents. Of these. the enzyme de tergents are turn outing highly utile in maintaining a cheque on environmental pollution. They offer a suited option to the man-made detergents with respect to their biodegradability. low toxicity. non-corrosiveness. environment-friendliness. enhanced cleaning belongingss every bit good as increased efficiency and stableness in different preparations.

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Stakeholder Environmentalist Essay Example

Stakeholder Environmentalist Essay Example Stakeholder Environmentalist Essay Stakeholder Environmentalist Essay 2.2 Stakeholder – Environmentalist 2.2.1 Introduction Environment refers to the surroundings in which living beings live or operate. The environment is thus affected by the operations and activities performed by human beings, directly or indirectly. These activities can be beneficial and/or harmful to the environment. Thus, in order to protect the environment from the activities that can negatively affect it, a special individual or a group that plays a role in protecting the environment is referred to as Environmentalist. The role of environmentalist is highly significant when it comes to the matter of construction of a tourism spot close to a marine body as it has a variety of effects on almost all elements of the environment. The Seaside Mall Construction will have direct and indirect repercussions on the environment of Dubai, which makes it a prime concern for the environmentalist bodies such as Emirates Wildlife Society (EWS) and Emirates Environmental Group (EEG). 2.1.2 Impact and Evidence The construction industry will continue to impact the physical environment as long as the industry demands natural resources, and this will assume huge environmental significance with the rapid growth in population and the attendant implications for natural resources (Ebohon and Rwelamila, 2001; Ofori et al., 1999). The construction of a seaside mall can be considered as one of the most debatable scenario. It will be an economical success as it will be a project that will contribute to the economical growth of the nation. But there will be several other consequences of such a project on the environment, which will be a prime concern for the environmentalists and the government as a whole. The seaside construction will lead to negative outcomes like Water Pollution and will cause damage to marine life. There are a large number of sources of water pollution on such construction sites, including diesel and other fossil fuels, paints, and toxic chemicals. Even minor chemical spills can seep into the ground and may enter water bodies through which they can toxify the water and harm aquatic life. More importantly, the construction requirements will require drilling, which is a major contributor to Noise Pollution. This noise pollution will not only affect the residents, but will also affect the marine habitats. Other than the mentioned negative effects, construction can also be considered as a major cause of Air Pollution. Almost all major construction projects result in emitting carbon dioxide, methane and other harmful chemical substances that harm the air and contribute to global climate change. Other effects include operations of heavy machinery during the construction, which also lead to carbon dioxide emissions. Not only during construction, but also after the construction of such a mall, there will be various ways in which it would harm the environment. Sewerage waste, food waste, chemical waste can be dumped into the water bodies during regular running of the mall, thus affecting the water body and harming the marine life. Keeping in mind the â€Å"seaside construction project†, Emma Johnston comments that developments are also taking place in oceans and water bodies creating various problems such as destroying the coral reefs that nourish fisheries and protect the coastline from the harsher impact of the waves, and destabilizing many precious coastal ecosystems such as salt flats and mangroves in the context of Palm Jumeirah. This project will also possess a threat to the ecological chain and will create an imbalance in the ecosystem. This point can be connected to the noise pollution factor. Construction near a coastal location can lead to adverse effects of noise pollution on marine habitants. According to Peng, Zhao, and Liu (2015), â€Å"noise pollution will not only pose a great threat to individual marine organisms but also may affect the composition, and subsequently the health and service functions of the ecosystem. For instance, some studies have shown that anthropogenic noise caused a reduction in the catch rate of some commercial marine species indicating a decrease in the service function of the ecosystem for providing fishery products.† More importantly, building on, or near the sea can also cause natural damages. There are a few reports that highlight that Dubai’s Palm Jumeirah Island is actually sinking, though the government denied such claims. It poses a great threat to the reclaimed land situated in disaster-prone areas. The continuous shaking due to a calamity like earthquake can lead to a process called liquefaction, where the solid land sediments can liquefy. The earthquake in San Francisco of 1906 is a great instance of such a disaster caused by the same reason. 2.1.3 Discussion/Findings After conducting various studies and research, the claim that construction affects the environment negatively is true. There are numerous direct ways in which such a project can affect the environment and degrades it. According to Ivano Iannelli, CEO of the Dubai Carbon, â€Å"Dubai doesnt suffer from air pollution like some of the other metropolises do.† But projects such as construction of a seaside mall can directly contribute to polluting the environment. The government of UAE as a whole would not prefer to hamper the environment in any way. Thus, they will have to keep in mind the effects of such a construction on the environment and the residents. The claims of pollution and also the evidence of the process of liquefaction in San Francisco resulting in an earthquake will make the government consider the effect of such a project on the environment. 2.1.4 Conclusion and Recommendations As conclusion, it is clearly evident that the role of an environmentalist is significant. Based on the research and survey conducted, the construction project causes a huge environmental issue. It affects almost all elements of the environments such as water, air, land, soil and also the living creatures that constitute the surroundings where the construction is taking place. Therefore the municipality should take an action keeping in mind these consequences of such a project. Recommendations:- The Ministry of Environment and Water (MEW) has published a number of regulations that have to be adhered in the UAE. These laws address the following areas:- Environmental impact assessments Protection of the marine environment Pollution from land sources Soil protection Protection of air from pollution Handling hazardous substances and wastes Also the municipalities and town planning departments also regulate certain areas including:- Waste management Building regulation Pollution control Water treatment The municipality must make sure that the project authorities adhere to the mentioned regulations and must impose appropriate fines if the project harms the environment in any way.

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Forensic DNA Testing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Forensic DNA Testing - Essay Example The DNA Identification Act of 1994 formalized the FBI's authority to establish a National DNA Index System (NDIS). The CODIS is different from the NDIS in that NDIS is the national database whereas CODIS is used today by more than 40 law enforcement laboratories in over 25 countries.( FBI, 2009) The CODIS system requires > 4 RFLP markers and/or 13 core STR markers. Now, what are STR's Most of the DNA is identical to the DNA of others in the human genome. However, there are inherited regions of our DNA that may not necessarily code for proteins termed as introns, which can vary from person to person. A variation in the DNA sequence between individuals is termed as "polymorphism". Sequences which display the highest degree of polymorphism are very useful for DNA analysis in forensics cases and paternity testing. Forensic DNA testing is based on analyzing the inheritance of a class of DNA polymorphisms known as "Short Tandem Repeats "or STRs. STRs are short sequences of DNA, normally of length 2-5 base pairs, that are repeated numerous times in a head-tail manner, for example the sequence GATA occurs anywhere between 5-16 repeats at the locus D7S820. The number of repeats within an STR is referred to as an allele. Thus there are 12 different alleles possible for the D7S820 STR. Because there 12 different alleles for this STR, there are therefore 78 different possibl e genotypes, or pairs of alleles. Specifically, there are 12 homozygote's, in which the same allele is received from each parent, as well as 66 heterozygote's, in which the two alleles are different. Norrgard,K.(2008) After an extensive validation study, 13 STR loci were selected to form the core (i.e., required) genetic markers for CODIS. The methodology involved in the STR analysis is as follows. The DNA is isolated from the sample. The STR region in the DNA is amplified using PCR and suitable primers. The various companies manufacturing STR kits typically vary in the primer they employ. PCR enables even nanogram amounts of sample to be sufficient for evaluation. Only when all the 13 markers match in the source and the felon sample is the convict included in the source of crime. Even after all the 13STR's are matched a statistical test is carried out to analyze the overall STR frequency. It is assumed that the STR's follow law of independent assortment which implies that each member of a pair of homologous chromosomes separates independently of the members of other pairs so the result is random and that the population mates randomly by the FBI in analyzing the STR profiles. The Hardy Weinberg l aw was used to calculate gene frequency which states that the gene frequencies remain conserved from generation to generation. It is important to understand that this number is the probability of seeing this DNA profile if the crime scene evidence did not come from the suspect but from some other person. If all the STR's from the sample are not retrievable due to damaged or an extremely old source of DNA, then the STR profiling cannot be used as the sole evidence and other proof's have to be collected. Though the STR profiling is rapid the CODIS database is currently facing a backlog of >600,000 samples to be keyed in.In addition to